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大学英语精读第3册 第10课 课后阅读  

2009-01-23 11:20:36|  分类: 英语 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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READING ACTIVITY
Skill: Reading Attack Skill V
  Recognizing Word Chains
Writers often need to refer to the same thing several times. They may use different words or expressions to do this. For instance, it is common to use pronouns like he, it, them, that, those, etc. to replace nouns. Another common pattern is the use of one noun to take the place of another noun. Therefore, it is important for you to find the common referent (被替代的词) wherever such word chains turn up in your reading. That is to say, never lose the thread, Only in so doing can you read accurately and efficiently.

Passage
Exercis3s A and B will give you some practice in this respect.

Exercise A
Read the following short paragraphs. Then circle the referents and underline the substitute words(s) or phrase(s) for each.
  1. Mr. And Mrs. Ward moved to Albany in 1950. they liked the town, it is a city situated in the east of New York State, with a population of about one hundred thousand.
  2. Ronny instructed the chauffeur to take the Marabar road rather than the Gugavati, since the latter was under repair.
  3. A lioness (雌狮) and her cubs(幼仔) could be seen under a wall tree. The cats seemed unaware of our presence. We watched for several minutes, thinking how beautiful the animals were.
  4. Smith Calderon and Caro have now completed three days of negotiations.
  All three political leaders have so far refused to make statements to the press.
  They are believed to have reached tentative (暂时的) agreement, however, and relations seem friendly. The men are expected to issue a joint communiqué(公报) tomorrow.

Exercise B
Read the following article and answer the questions that follow:
Words to Know
Significant  重大的

Worldwide  在世界范围(的);全世界(的)

Output  产量

Scale  规模

Vary  (使)变化

Curve  曲线

Quantity  数量

Publication  出版

Increasingly  日益;越来越多地

Parallel  与...平行

Element  元素;成分

Invisible  看不见的

Extent  范围,程度

Contemporary  当代的;同时代的


Knowledge as Fuel
A. Toffler

The rate at which man has been storing up useful knowledge about himself and the universe has been spiraling upward for 10,000 years. The rate took a sharp upward leap with the invention of writing, but even so it remained painfully slow over centuries of time. The next great leap forward in knowledge-acuqisition did not occuruntil the invention of movable type in the fifteenth century by Gutenberg and others. Prior to 1500, by the most optimistic estimates, Europe was producing books at a rate of 1,000 titles per year. (1) This means, give or take a bit, that it would take a full century to produce a library of 100,000 titles. By 1950, four and a half centuries later, the rate had accelerated so sharply that Europe was producing 120,000 titles a year. What once took a century now took only ten months. By 1960, a single decade later, the rate had made another significant jump, so that a century's work could be completed in seven and a half months. And, by the mid-sixties, the output of books on a world scale, Europe included, approached the prodigious figure of 1,000 titles per day.
One can hardly argue that every book is a net gain for the advancement of knowledge. Nevertheless, we find that the accelerative curve in book publication does, in fact, crudely parallel the rate at which man discovered new knowledge. For example, prior to Grutenberg only 11 chemical elements were known. Antimony the 12th, was discovered at about the time he was working on his invention. It was fully 200 years since the 11th, arsenic, had been discovered. (2)Had the same rate of discovery continued, we would by now have added only two or three additional elements to the periodic table since Gutenberg. Instead, in the 450 years after his time, some seventy additional elements were discovered. (3)And since 1900 we have been isolating the remaining elements not at a rate of one every two centuries, but of one every three years.
Furthermore, there is reason to believe that the rate is still rising sharply.
(4)Today, for example, the number of scientific journals and articles is doubling, like industrial production in the advanced countries, about every fifteen years, and according to biochemist Philip Siekevitz, "what has been learned in the last three decades about the nature of living beings dwarfs in extent of knowledge any comparable period of scientific discovery in the history of mankind." Today the United States government alone generates 100,000 reports each year, plus 450,000 articles, books and papers. On a worldwide basis, scientific and technical literature mounts at a rate of some 60,000,000 pages a year.
The computer burst upon the scene around 1950. with its unprecedented power for analysis and dissemination of extremely varied kinds of data in unbelievable quantities and at mind-staggering speeds, it has become a major force behind the latest acceleration in knowledge-acquisition. Combined with other increasingly powerful analytical tools for observing the invisible universe around us, it has raised the rate of knowledge-acquisition to dumbfounding speeds.
Francis Bacon told us that "Knowledge ... is power." This can now be translated into contemporary terms. In our social setting, "Knowledge in change" - and accelerating knowledge - acquisition, fueling the great engine of technology, means accelerating change.

  1. What does "it" in "but even so it remained ..." (para 1) refer to?
  2. What does "it" in "that it would take ..." (para 1) refer to?
  3. What does "the 11th" in "fully 200 years since the 11th ... " (para 2) refer to?
  4. How many chemical elements had been included in the periodic table by 1900 (para 2)?
  5. What does "one" in "at a rate of one every two centuries ... " (para 2) refer to?
  6. What does "literature" in "scientific and technical literature ... " (para 3) mean?
  7. What does "it" in "it has raised the rate of knowledge-acquisition ... " (para 4) refer to?

Exercise C
Translate into Chinese the underlined sentences in the passage.

GUIDED WRITING
1 In the following passage, most of the connective words are missing. Rewrite it, adding connective words where necessary. Many structures will have to be changed and you will probably not kept the same number of sentences. Here are some of the connective words you may find useful:
then  however  the only result
and  but  although
when  yet  so
that's how instead
television was invented by John Logie Baird. When he was young he built an aeroplane. He tried to fly in it. It crashed down below. Baird was fortunate not to be killed. It did not discourage him. When he was older he tried to make diamonds from coal. There was an enormous explosion. He was not injured. He became a businessman. His business failed. He thought of working at television. His family advised his not to. He did not listen to them. He rented an attic. He bought the apparatus he needed. He started working. He worked for a long time. He was not successful. One day he saw a picture on his screen. He rushed out to get someone he could "televise". He found an office boy. He took him back to his room. No image of the boy appeared on his screen. The boy, terrified, had put his head down. He put it up again. His picture appeared on the screen. Television had been discovered.

2 Write a brief sketch of the life of George Stephenson, using the facts given below:
--date of birth: June 9, 1781
--birthplace: Wylam, Britain
--worked as a herdboy at the age of 8
--not learned to read until 17
--interested in making little models of engines of clay and sticks when still young
--became a self-made engineer
--inventor of the first successful steam locomotive
--builder of the first railway to carry passengers (opened in 1825)
--known as the Founder of Railways
--died in 1848
Your sketch may begin as follows:
George Stephenson was born on June 9, 1781, in Wylam, Britain.

SUPPLEMENTARY READING IN POPULAR SCIENCE
Artificial Intelligence
  Scientists have succeeded in getting robots to react to their environment in the same way that less sophisticated animals do. But can a robot ever know enough to pass off as a human and strike up a conversation?
Words to Know
Weld  焊接

Shear  翦(羊毛等);翦...的毛

Rub  擦

Flexible  灵活的

Ashtray  烟灰缸

Artificial  人工的

Static  静止的

Extensive  广泛的

Frame  框架

Diagnose  诊断

Thumb  拇指

Ash  灰

Vain  徒劳的;爱虚荣的

At first sight there is little the modern robot cannot do. In shipyards, robots weld, rub and paint. Robots were used to clean up Chernoby1 (切尔诺贝利核电站). They hunt for mines. They make cars, shear sheep, repair pipes and mix chemicals. A robot-surgeon is currently operating on patients at Guy's hospital in London. In short, for unthinking and repetitive tasks, or for dangerous but straightforward jobs, a robot is your man.
The problem is, of course, that it isn't a man. Although all these machines are sophisticated bits of engineering appropriate to their jobs, they are just tools. Their inability to be flexible often limits their applications; each repetitive task requires a tool of a different shape. The brains created by artificial intelligence can think for themselves but only in areas where there is a permanent and extensive set of rules. A computer can now beat a world champion at chess, search efficiently through vast quantities of information to diagnose illness, or match up lonely hearts with similar likes and interests. But stepping out of there areas has proved difficult.
In part it is question of definition. Consider a chair. It is something that gets sat on. But how does it differ from a stool or a table? After all tables can be sat upon. Or consider a glass. It is something that gets drunk from. But what is the difference between a glass and a bowl or even an ashtray? Unless rules can be drawn up that leave no such ambiguities(模棱两可), a robot looking around a room will see lots of things that can be sat on or drunk from, and will get confused.
Thinking up a set of logical rules for things such as common sense or language understanding is even harder, particularly as the world is not static. The set of rules must be able to adjust to changing situations. This is artificial intelligence's "frame problem": how much of the world you must consider before you act?
Some people think they can solve the frame problem. A team led by Douglas Lenat in Austin, Texas, has been entering logical rules into a computer program called CYC since 1984. the hope is that once the program knows enough rules of thumb, CYC will be able to go out and learn the rest on its own by comparing new information with what it already knows. Dr. Lenat hopes that CYC will eventually know enough to pass itself off as a human in a keyboards conversation.
The idea of trying to construct a model that would give a robot "human reasons" to strike up a conversation, or in fact do just about anything is out of the question at the moment. People are simply too complicated to model. (How would you order a robot to "avoid embarrassment" or o "flirt", instance?) but there has been some success in getting robots to react to their environment in the same way that less sophisticated animals do. But the thought that they will ever be anything like humans seems vain indeed.
(adapted from The Economist)

answer the following questions:
  1. What kind of tasks are robots good at?
  2. Under what circumstances can artificial intelligence machines work?
  3. What is the "frame problem"?
  4. How, in some people's opinion, can the "frame problem" be solved?
  5. Does the author think robots will ever be able to act like humans?




        
外教社大学英语精读第3册第10单元参考答案
2008年01月15日 星期二 12:13 P.M.

Understanding the Text

4

1.b 2.d 3.c 4.d 5.a 6.a 7.b 8.b

Vocabulary

7

1.--i 2.--g 3.--e 4.--b 5.--c 6.--j 7.--a 8.--f 9.--h 10.--d

8

1.occurred 2.have been embodied/ were embodied 3.averaged
4.likewise 5.characteristic of 6.accelerate 7.apply 8.available
9.misleading 10.surroundings

9

1.account 2.generate 3.accelerate 4.exceed 5.fed on 6.applied
7.feasible 8.available 9.essential 10.reduced/cut

10

1.keep up with 2.feed on 3.be carried out 4.go by 5.conjures up
6.step up 7.point out 8.consists of 9.labored along

11

1. Very impressive. It's one of the best lecture I've ever attended.
2. Because the style is outdated.
3. The minimum spped is 30 mph and the maximum speed is 50 mph.
4. It was fantastic. I enjoyed every minute of it.
5. No. I think his comments are misleading.

Word Building

12
1.modernize 2.revolutionize 3.sympathized 4.criticized
5.is characterized 6.is symbolized 7.specialize 8.summarize

13
arch(a)eology
the study of human society
the study of life
psychology
the study of the future

Structure

14
1.So absurd was his manner that everyone stared at him.
2.So strong was his position in the Liberal Party that he had no need to make any speeches to win the nomination.
3.So forcefully did he speak at the meeting that everyone present was convinced.
4.So isolated was John that no one said a word in his favor.
5.So hard did he work that he obtained his Ph.D. degree one year ahead of schedule.
6.So brilliant was his satire that his victims laughted at it.

15
The samll town consumed 50,000 pints of milk in 1975 and 150,000 pints of milk in 1985. The town's consumption of milk in 1985 was three times that of 1975.
The samll town consumed 5,000 kg. of fish in 1975. In 1985, the town's fish consumption reached 6,000 kg., a 20% increase in ten years.
The town's egg consumption in 1975 was 12,000 kg. and in 1985 it reached 60,000 kg.In ten years, egg consumption in the town increased five times.
In 1975 the small town consumed 600 tons of vegetables, and in 1985 it consumed 900 tons. In ten years, the town's vegetalbe consumption increased by 50 per cent.
The fruit consumption in the small town was 8 tons in 1975 and 48 tons in 1985. It increased six times over a period of ten years.
In 1975 the town consumed 4,000 gallons of beer. In 1985, beer consumption was raised to 40,000 gallons, a tenfold increase.

16
1. She looks pretty, whether she wears blue or pink.
2. He is always cheerful whether (he is) sick or well.
3. This is the boxer's last fight whether he wins or loses.
4. You'll have to face the consequences whether you like it or not.
5. Whether he approves or disapproves, we will go on with the experiment.

Cloze

17
(A)
1.feeds on 2.stages 3.characteristics 4.advanced
5.fantastic 6.put (ideas) to work 7.reduced 8.Likewise
9.Shortened 10.acceleration 11.in turn 12.feasible

(B)
1.often 2.with 3.without 4.there 5.change 6.however 7.since
8.nothing 9.at 10.the 11.about 12.all 13.what 14.from
15.of 16.present 17.people 18.so 19.its 20.Even 21.accelerating
22.into 23.own

Translation

18
1. In fact, there are different account of the shipwreck in the newspapers.
2. It is said that the area was well advanced in agriculture as early as 2,000 years ago.
3. The function of an ATM is to allow people to take out money from their bank account with a special card whether the bank is open or closed.
4. Kong Fansen embodies all the fine qualities of a communist.
5. It is most essential to build up your confidence if you want to achieve something in life.
6. If you apply for a job, you should be ready for an interview in which you often have to answer some difficult questions.
Key to Reading Activity

Exercise A
1.
(1)Referent: Mr. and Mrs. Ward
Substitute: They
(2)Referent: Albany
Substitute: town, it, city
2.Referent: the Gungavati (road)
Substitute: the latter
3. Referent: lioness and her cubs
Substitute: cats, animals
4. Referent: Smith, Calderon and Caro
Substitutes: three political leaders, They, The men

Exercise B
1. The rate (at which man has been storing up useful knowledge).
2. To produce a library of 100,000 tiltles.
3. Arsenic.
4. 82.
5. One chemical element.
6. Printed materials.
7. The computer.

Exercise C
1.这就意味着,建立一个拥有10万册图书的图书馆大致上需花费整整一个世纪。
2.元素的发现如按当初这一速度继续下去,从谷根堡至今,我们也只能给周期表增添两三个新元素。
3.而自1900年以来,我们离析剩下的元素的速度已不是每两个世纪才获得一个,而是每三年就得到一个了。
4.譬如,现今科学刊物和论文的数量,就像发达国家的工业产量一样,每隔15年便翻一番。用生物化学家菲利普。西克维茨的话来说:“在最近30年中,我们对生物属性的了解,就知识广度而言,足以是人类历史上任何可与之相比的科学发现时期相形见绌。”


答案

Understanding the Text

4

1.b 2.d 3.c 4.d 5.a 6.a 7.b 8.b

Vocabulary

7

1.--i 2.--g 3.--e 4.--b 5.--c 6.--j 7.--a 8.--f 9.--h 10.--d

8

1.occurred 2.have been embodied/ were embodied 3.averaged
4.likewise 5.characteristic of 6.accelerate 7.apply 8.available
9.misleading 10.surroundings

9

1.account 2.generate 3.accelerate 4.exceed 5.fed on 6.applied
7.feasible 8.available 9.essential 10.reduced/cut

10

1.keep up with 2.feed on 3.be carried out 4.go by 5.conjures up
6.step up 7.point out 8.consists of 9.labored along

11

1. Very impressive. It's one of the best lecture I've ever attended.
2. Because the style is outdated.
3. The minimum spped is 30 mph and the maximum speed is 50 mph.
4. It was fantastic. I enjoyed every minute of it.
5. No. I think his comments are misleading.

Word Building

12
1.modernize 2.revolutionize 3.sympathized 4.criticized
5.is characterized 6.is symbolized 7.specialize 8.summarize

13
arch(a)eology
the study of human society
the study of life
psychology
the study of the future

Structure

14
1.So absurd was his manner that everyone stared at him.
2.So strong was his position in the Liberal Party that he had no need to make any speeches to win the nomination.
3.So forcefully did he speak at the meeting that everyone present was convinced.
4.So isolated was John that no one said a word in his favor.
5.So hard did he work that he obtained his Ph.D. degree one year ahead of schedule.
6.So brilliant was his satire that his victims laughted at it.

15
 The samll town consumed 50,000 pints of milk in 1975 and 150,000 pints of milk in 1985. The town's consumption of milk in 1985 was three times that of 1975.
 The samll town consumed 5,000 kg. of fish in 1975. In 1985, the town's fish consumption reached 6,000 kg., a 20% increase in ten years.
 The town's egg consumption in 1975 was 12,000 kg. and in 1985 it reached 60,000 kg.In ten years, egg consumption in the town increased five times.
 In 1975 the small town consumed 600 tons of vegetables, and in 1985 it consumed 900 tons. In ten years, the town's vegetalbe consumption increased by 50 per cent.
 The fruit consumption in the small town was 8 tons in 1975 and 48 tons in 1985. It increased six times over a period of ten years.
 In 1975 the town consumed 4,000 gallons of beer. In 1985, beer consumption was raised to 40,000 gallons, a tenfold increase.

16
1. She looks pretty, whether she wears blue or pink.
2. He is always cheerful whether (he is) sick or well.
3. This is the boxer's last fight whether he wins or loses.
4. You'll have to face the consequences whether you like it or not.
5. Whether he approves or disapproves, we will go on with the experiment.

Cloze

17
(A)
1.feeds on 2.stages 3.characteristics 4.advanced
5.fantastic 6.put (ideas) to work 7.reduced 8.Likewise
9.Shortened 10.acceleration 11.in turn 12.feasible

(B)
1.often 2.with 3.without 4.there 5.change 6.however 7.since
8.nothing 9.at 10.the 11.about 12.all 13.what 14.from
15.of 16.present 17.people 18.so 19.its 20.Even 21.accelerating
22.into 23.own

Translation

18
1. In fact, there are different account of the shipwreck in the newspapers.
2. It is said that the area was well advanced in agriculture as early as 2,000 years ago.
3. The function of an ATM is to allow people to take out money from their bank account with a special card whether the bank is open or closed.
4. Kong Fansen embodies all the fine qualities of a communist.
5. It is most essential to build up your confidence if you want to achieve something in life.
6. If you apply for a job, you should be ready for an interview in which you often have to answer some difficult questions.

Key to Reading Activity

Exercise A
1.
(1)Referent: Mr. and Mrs. Ward
 Substitute: They
(2)Referent: Albany
 Substitute: town, it, city
2.Referent: the Gungavati (road)
 Substitute: the latter
3. Referent: lioness and her cubs
 Substitute: cats, animals
4. Referent: Smith, Calderon and Caro
 Substitutes: three political leaders, They, The men

Exercise B
1. The rate (at which man has been storing up useful knowledge).
2. To produce a library of 100,000 tiltles.
3. Arsenic.
4. 82.
5. One chemical element.
6. Printed materials.
7. The computer.

Exercise C
1.这就意味着,建立一个拥有10万册图书的图书馆大致上需花费整整一个世纪。
2.元素的发现如按当初这一速度继续下去,从谷根堡至今,我们也只能给周期表增添两三个新元素。
3.而自1900年以来,我们离析剩下的元素的速度已不是每两个世纪才获得一个,而是每三年就得到一个了。
4.譬如,现今科学刊物和论文的数量,就像发达国家的工业产量一样,每隔15年便翻一番。用生物化学家菲利普。西克维茨的话来说:“在最近30年中,我们对生物属性的了解,就知识广度而言,足以是人类历史上任何可与之相比的科学发现时期相形见绌。”


Unit 10  The Fantastic Spurt in Technology

Key to Study & Practice
 

Understanding the Text

 

IV.

 
1. b 2. d 3. c 4. d 5. a 6. a 7. b 8. b
 
Vocabulary

 
VII

 
1.----- i 2----- g 3.---- e 4.----- b 5.---- c 6.------ j 7.------ a 8.-----f 9.-----h 10 ----- d

 
VIII

 
1. occurred   2. Have been embodied/ were embodied    3. averaged 4. Likewise

5. Characteristic of    6. accelerate    8.misleading    10. surroundings

 
IX

 
1. account 2.generate 3. accelerate 4. exceed 5.fed on 6. applied    7. apply   8.feasible
9. essential 10. Reduced/cut
 

X

 
1. keep up with 2. feed on 3. be carried out 4.go by 5. conjures up 6.step up
7. point out 8. consists of 9. labored along
 

XI

 
1. Very impressive, It's one of the best lectures I've ever attended.
2. Because the style is outdated.
3.The minimum speed is 30mph and the maximum speed is 50mph.
4. It was fantastic. I enjoyed every minute of it.
5. No. I think his comments are misleading.
 

Word Building

 
XII

 
1. modernize    2. revolutionize    3. Sympathized    4. Criticized

5. Is characterized    6.is symbolized    7. Specialize
 

XIII

 
Ach( a)eology the study of ancient things, esp. remains of prehistoric times
sociology the study of human society
biology the study of life
psychology the study of the mind and its processes
futurology the study of the future
Note: The explanations in the right column are meant to be a definition of items in the left column; instead they just give an idea of what the branch of scientific study is about.
 

Structure

 
XIV

 
1. So absurd was his manner that stared at him.
2. So strong was his position in the Liberal Party that had no need to make any speeches to win the nomination.
3. So forcefully did he speak at the meeting that everyone present was convinced.
4. So isolated was John that no one said a word in his favor.
5. So hard did he work that obtained his Ph. D. degree one year ahead of schedule.
6. So brilliant was his satire that even his victims laughed at it.
 

XIV

 
The small town consumed 50,000 pints of milk in 1975and 150,000 pints of milk in 1985. The town's consumption of milk in 1985was three time that of 1975.
The small town consumed 5,000dg. Of fish in 1975. In 1985, the town's fish consumption reached 6,000kg, a 20%ubcrease in five times.
The town's egg consumption in 1975 was 12,000kg.and in 1985 it reached 60,000kg ,In ten years, egg consumption in the town increased five times.
In 1975 the small town consumed 600tons of vegetables, and in 1986 it reached 60,000kg. In ten years, the town's vegetable consumption increased by 50 per cent.
The fruit consumption in the small town was 8 tons in 1972 and 1985. It increased six times over a period of ten years.
In 1975 the town consumed 4, 000gallons of beer. In 1985, beer consumption was raised to 40,000gallons, a tenfold increase.
 

XIV

 
1. She looks pretty, whether she wears blue or pink.
2. He is always cheerful whether (he is )sick or loses.
3. This is the boxer's last fight whether he wins or loses.
4. You'll have to face the consequences you like it or nor
5. Whether he approves or disapproves ,we will go on with the experiment.
 

Cloze

 
XVI

 
(A)
1. feeds on 2. stages 3. characteristics 4. advanced 5. fantastic 6.put (ideas )to work 7. reduced 8. Likewise 9. shortened 10. acceleration 11. In turn 12.feasible
 

(B)
1. often 2.with 3.without 4.there 5. change 6. however 7. since 8. nothing 9. at 10.the 11 about 12. all 13 what 14.from 15. of 16. present 17. people 18. so 19.its 20. even 21. accelerating 22. into 23. own

Translation


XVIII
1. In fact, there are different accounts of the shipwreck in the newspapers.
2. It is said that the area was advanced in agriculture as early as 2,000yearly ago.
3. The function of an ATM is to allow people to take out money from their bank account with a special card whether the bank is open or close.
4. Kong Fansen embodies all the time qualities of a communist.
5. If you apply for a job, you should be ready for an interview in which you often have to answer some difficult questions.
 

Key to Reading Activity

 
Exercise A
1. (1) Referent: Mr. and Mrs. Ward
Substitute: They
(2) Referent: Albany
Substitutes: town, It, city
2. Referent: the Gungavati (road)
Substitutes: the latter
3. Referent: lioness and her cubs
Substitutes: cats, animals
4. Referent: Smith, Calderon and Caro
Substitutes: three political leaders, They, The men

Exercise B
1. The rate (at which man has been storing up useful knowledge).
2. To produce a library of 100,000 titles.
3. Arsenic.
4. 82.
5. One chemical element.
6. Printed materials.
7. The computer.
 
Exercise C
 

知识作燃料
 

A?托夫勒

  
        人类积累有关自身以及宇宙的各种有用知识的速度一直呈螺旋形持续上升,这种趋势已保持了1万年。书写的发明使这一速度有了一次急剧的上升,但即使如此,在几个世纪的岁月中,这一速度仍缓慢无比。第二次知识获取的巨大飞跃直到15世纪谷根堡以及其他人发明了活字印刷之后才出现。根据最乐观的统计,1500年以前,欧洲的出书速度是每年1千册。(1)这就意味着,建立一个拥有10万册图书的图书馆大致上需花费整整一个世纪。到了四个半世纪后的1950年,这一速度急剧上升,欧洲每年出书12万册。曾经需花费一个世纪完成的工作现在只用了10个月。到10年后的1960年,这一速度又有了一个巨大飞跃,因而一个世纪的工作在7个半月内即可完成。到了60年代中期,世界范围内的出书量,包括欧洲,达到了每天1千册这一惊人数字。
        我们不能说每一册书对知识的进步都是有益无害的。但是我们发现,事实上,图书出版的加速曲线与人类发现新知识的速度的确大致相似。譬如,在谷根堡以前只发现了11个化学元素。第12个元素锑大约是在谷根堡发明活字印刷的同时发现的。那是在第11个元素砷被发现之后整整200年。(2)元素的发现如按当初这一速度继续下去,从谷根堡至今,我们也只能给周期表增添两三个新元素。相反,在他之后的450年内,有大约70个元素被发现。(3)而自1900年以来,我们离析剩下的元素的速度已不是每两个世纪才获得一个,而是每三年就得到一个了。
        再者,有理由相信这一速率仍在急剧上升。(4)譬如,现今科学刊物和论文的数量,就像发达国家的工业产量一样,每隔15年便翻一番。用生物化学家菲利普? 西克维茨的话来说,"在最近30年中,我们对生物属性的了解,就知识广度而言,足以使人类历史上任何可与之相比的科学发现时期相形见绌。"今天,仅美国政府就职每年推出10万篇报告,另有45万篇(册)文章、书籍和论文。在全球范围内,科学技术文献达到每年产生6千万页文字这样一种速度。
        计算机是在1950年前后一下子问世的。它有着前所未有的能力,能以惊人的速度分析、传播数量多得令人难以置信的形形色色的数据资料,因而成为知识获取方面出现最新加速趋势的主要驱动力。它与其它观察周围无形宇宙世界的日益强有力的分析工具相结合,将知识获取的速度提高到了令人瞠目的程度。
        弗朗西斯?培根告诉我们"知识……就是力量。"现在这句话可以用当今的说法来诠释。在我们的社会里,"知识就是变化"----加快知识获取,给科学技术这台巨大的发动机添加燃料,便是意味着加快变化。
 

 
Key to Guided Writing
 

I

 
Television was invented by John Logie Baird. When he was young he built an aeroplane. He tried to fly in it, but it crashed down below. However, Baird was fortunate not to be killed. It did not discourage him; instead, when he was older he tried to make diamonds from coal. The only result was an enormous explosion. Yet he was not injured. Then he became a businessman. When his business failed he thought of working at television. His family advised him not to, but he did not listen to them. He rented an attic, bought the apparatus he needed and started working. Although he worked for a long time he was not successful. One day he saw a picture on his screen. So he rushed out to get someone he could "televise". He found an office boy and took him back to his room. However, no image of the boy appeared on his screen. The boy, terrified, had put down his head. When he put it up again his picture appeared on the screen. That's how television had been discovered.
 

II

 
George Stephenson was born on June 9,1781, in Wylam, Britain. At the age of 8 he worked as a herdboy. When he was still young, Stephenson was interested in making little models of engines of clay and sticks. However, he had not learned to read until 17. Later he became a well-known engineer through self-study. He invented the first successful steam locomotive and built the first railway to carry passengers which was opened (to traffic) in 1825. He was called the Founder of Railways. He died in 1848.
 



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