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大学英语精读第2册 第10课 课文  

2009-01-22 11:13:24|  分类: 英语 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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UNIT 10


---赞美的益处
我们责备起来太快、赞美起来太慢?我们显然就是如此。

 

     作者:珍妮特·格雷厄姆

     在忙碌的纽约餐馆里做为一名女招待它是我精疲力尽的一天的结束。我的帽子已经歪斜,我的围裙已经脏了,我的脚酸痛。我携带的装满的托盘感觉越来越重。虚弱而无精打彩,我显然不能做好任何事了。当我为一个带了几个孩子的家庭开出已经改变了12次冰淇淋叫单的复杂收据时,我准备不干了。

     然后这家的父亲微笑着递给我小费。"好好做,"他说。"你照应我们做得很好。"

     突然间我的疲劳烟消云散了。我回报以微笑,并且稍后,当经理问我怎样喜欢我的第一天时,我说,"好!"那些很少的赞美的话已经改变了每一件事情。

     赞美对于人类的精神就像阳光;我们没有它不能开花和生长。而且,当我们中的大多数人仅仅是准备提供给其他人批评的冷风时,我们却不知为什么勉强地给我们的同伴温暖的赞美的阳光。

     为什么——一句话能带来如此的愉快?我的一位到处旅行的朋友总是试图学习她到的任何一个地方的一点语言。她并不算是一位语言学家,但她知道如何说一句话 ——"美丽"——用几种语言。她能对一位抱着孩子的母亲说这句话,或者对一位孤独的探寻出他的家庭前景的推销员说这句话。这种能力已经使他赢得了遍布世界的朋友。

     奇怪的我们是多么小心谨慎地赞美。可能是因为我们中很少有人懂得如何优雅地接受称赞。代替使我们尴尬并不屑理睬的话的是真正听起来如此高兴的话。由于抵制反应,给予直接的赞美是不同寻常的困难。那是为什么最有价值的称赞是通过一封信或通过朋友传达的间接方式告诉我们的。当人们考虑到恶意评论被传播的速度时,转播愉快和奉承意见显得没有更多的努力。

     对于努力没有被注意或提及的领域给予赞美是一种特别的奖励。一位艺术家因为一幅辉煌的画作得到赞美,一位厨师因为一顿佳肴得到赞美。但是当你的衬衣洗熨得很好时你有没有告诉你的洗衣店经理你是多么的愉快?一年365天能准时将报纸送给你时你有没有因此夸奖报童?

     赞美特别被那些做着一成不变的事的人们所欣赏:加油站服务人员、侍者——甚至是家庭主妇。你曾经走进一个家里并且说,"多么干净的房间"?几乎没有人这样做。那是为什么家务活被认为是如此沉闷乏味的道理。评语被经常产生于相对比较容易或满意的活动,像插花;但却与困难而脏的工作无关,像擦地板。莎士比亚说,"我们的赞美是我们的报酬。"因为如此经常的赞美是一位家庭主妇得到的惟一的报酬,确实所有的家庭主妇都应该得到她的评语。

     妈妈们本能地知道给孩子一盎司的赞美是值得一镑的申斥。对于提供的这个规则我们并不总是像我们应该是的那样感觉灵敏。有一天为了争吵我正在批评我的孩子。 "你们能不能和平地玩耍?"我喊道。苏珊娜疑惑地瞧着我,"当然我们能,"她说。"但是当我们和平地玩耍时你从不注意我们。"

     教师们同意这个赞美的价值。一位教师取代淹没学生作文本的红墨水,为了获得更富建设性的结果通过找到一件或两件比上一次做得更好的事,写下称赞性的评语在作文本上。"我相信一名学生知道当他上交了在某方面超过了他通常的水平的作业时,"这位教师写道,"于是他饥渴地等候一个给他看的简短的评语写在他的作业本的空白边上,这说明教师意识到了这一点。"

     行为科学家已经做了无数的试验证明任何人倾向于重复一个直接地被一个愉快的结果跟随的行动。在一个如此的试验里,许多学生被分成三个组并在五天里每天给数学测验。一组被不断地给予赞扬因为他们之前的表现;另一组被批评;第三组被忽视。

    毫不奇怪,那些被表扬的显著地提高了。那些被批评的也提高了,但没有那么多。并且这些被忽视的孩子的分数几乎根本没有提高。有趣的是被批评的最聪明的孩子像被赞美的一样被帮助的一样多,但能力弱些的孩子糟糕地反应于批评,而更多地需要表扬。但是后者在大多数学校中是最年轻的,失于得到称赞。

    给予称赞并不花费给予者什么除了片刻的思想和片刻的努力——可能一个迅速的电话传达了称赞,或者花5分钟写一封赞美的信。它是如此一个小的投资——并且它可能会产生这样的结果。"我能够靠一个好的赞美生活两个月,"马克·吐温说。

     于是,让我们警觉于我们周围这种小优点——并且评论他们。我们将不仅带快乐进其他人的生活中,而且,很经常地,会增加幸福进我们自己的生活。



TEXT
Are we too quick to blame and slow to praise? It seems we are.
Profits of Praise
Janes Graham
It was the end of my exhausting first day as waitress in a busy New .
York restaurant. My cap had gone awry, my apron was stained, my feet ached. The loaded trays I carried felt heavier and heavier. Weary and discouraged, I didn't seem able to do anything right. As I made out a complicated check for a family with several children who had changed their ice- cream order a dozen times, I was ready to quit.
Then the father smiled at me as he handed me my tip. ""Well done, he said. "You've looked after us really well."
Suddenly my tiredness vanished. I smiled back, and later, when the manager asked me how I'd liked my first day, I said, "Fine1" Those few words of praise had changed everything.
Praise is like sunlight to the human spirit; we cannot flower and grow without it. And yet, while most of us are only too ready to apply to others the cold wind of criticism, we are somehow reluctant to give our fellows the warm sunshine of praise.
Why - when one word can bring such pleasure? A friend of mind who travels widely always tries to learn a little of the language of any place she visits. She's not much of a linguist, but she does know how to say one word-"beautiful' - in several languages. She can use it to a mother holding her baby, or to a lonely salesman fishing out pictures of his family. The ability has earned her friends all over the world.
It's strange how chary we are about praising. Perhaps it's because few of us know how to accept compliments gracefully. Instead, we are embarrassed and shrug off the words we are really so glad to hear. Because of this defensive reaction, direct compliments are surprisingly difficult to give. That is why some of the most valued pats on the back are those which come to us indirectly, in a letter or passed on by a friend. When one thinks of the speed with which spiteful remarks are conveyed, it seems a pity that there isn't more effort to relay pleasing and flattering comments.
It's especially rewarding to give praise in areas in which effort generally goes unnoticed or unmentioned. An artist gets complimented for a glorious picture, a cook for a perfect meal. But do you ever tell your laundry manager how pleased you are when the shirts are done just right? Do you ever praise your paper boy for getting the paper to you on time 365 days a year?
Praise is particularly appreciated by those doing routine jobs: gasstation attendants, waitresses -even housewives. Do you ever go into a house and say, "What a tidy room"? Hardly anybody does. That's why housework is considered such a dreary grind. Comment is often made about activities which are relatively easy and satisfying, like arranging flowers; but not about jobs which are hard and dirty, like scrubbing floors. Shakespeare said, "Out praises are our wages." Since so often praise is the only wage a housewife receives, surely she of all people should get her measure.
Mothers know instinctively that for children an ounce of praise is worth a pound of scolding. Still, we're not always as perceptive as we might be about applying the rule. One day I was criticizing my children for squabbling. "Can you never play peacefully?"' I shouted. Susanna looked at me quizzically. "Of course we can," she said. "But you don't notice us when we do."
Teachers agree about the value of praise. One teacher writes that instead of drowning students' compositions in critical red ink, the teacher will get far more constructive results by finding one or two things which have been done better than last time, and commenting favorably on them. "I believe that a students knows when be has handed in something above his usual standard," writes the teacher, "and that he waits hungrily for a brief comment in the margin to show him that the teacher is aware ot if, too."
Behavioral scientists have done countless experiments to prove that any human being tends to repeat an act which has been immediately followed by a pleasant result. In one such experiment, a number of school children were divided onto three groups and given arithmetic tests daily for five days. One group was consistently praised for its previous performance; another group was criticized; the third was ignored.
Not surprisingly, those who were praised improved dramatically. Those who were criticized improved also, but not so much. And the scores of the children who were ignored hardly improved at all. Interestingly the brightest children were helped just as much by criticism as by praise, but the less able children reacted badly to criticism, needed praise the most. Yet the latter are the very youngsters who, in most schools, fail to get the pat on the back.
To give praise costs the giver nothing but a moment's thought and a moment's effort - perhaps a quick phone call to pass on a compliment, or five minutes spent writing an appreciative letter. It is such a small investment - and yet consider the results it may produce. "I  can live for two months on a good compliment," said Mark Twain.
So, let's be alert to the small  excellences around us - and comment on them. We will not only bring joy into other people's lives, but also, very often, added happiness into our own.

NEW WORDS
Profit  advantage or good obtained from money gained in business
益处;利润

exhaust  tire out
使筋疲力尽

waitress  woman waiter
歪;斜

awry  with a turn to one side

apron  围裙

stain  make dirty marks on
玷污

load  put a full amount of things on or in
装满

tray  托盘

weary  very tired
厌倦的;厌烦的

discourage  cause to lose courage or confidence
使泄气;使灰心

ice-cream  冰淇淋

dozen  twelve  (一)打

quit  stop (doing ) and leave
离(职);不干

sunlight  light of the sun; sunshine

human  of or concerning people

apply  运用;实施

application

somehow  for some reason or other; in some way or other
不知怎么地;以某种方式

reluctant  unwilling
不情愿的;勉强的

sunshine  light of the sun

linguist  person who is good at foreign languages; person who studies the science of language
通晓数国语言的人;语言学家

salesman  man whose work is selling a company's goods to businesses, homes,
推销员

earn  get in return for work or as a reward for one's qualities
挣得;赢得

chary  careful; cautious
谨慎小心的

compliment  praise
(赞美)话

praise  赞美

gracefully  大大方方地;优美地

graceful

embarrass  make awkward or ashamed
使尴尬

defensive  防御的

surprisingly  in a surprising manner or degree

pat  tap made with the open hand
轻拍

tap gently with the open hand

indirectly  in an indirect way
间接地

indirect

spiteful  having or showing ill will
恶意的

convey  make (ideas, views, feelings)  known to another person
转达; 传达

relay  传送;转达

flatter  praise too much; praise insincerely (in order to please)
过奖;诌媚;奉承

comment  opinion, explanation or judgment written or spoken about an event, book person, state of affairs,
评论

make comments (on); give opinions

rewarding  worthwhile; worth doing; giving a reward to
值得(做)的,报答的

reward

generally  usually
通常;一般地

artist  person who practices or works in one of the fine arts, painting
画家;艺术家

glorious  splendid
辉煌的

laundry  洗衣店

appreciate  understand and enjoy; be thankful for
欣赏;鉴赏;感谢;感激

routine  not unusual or exciting; regular
常规的;例行的

gas- station  加油站

attendant  服务人员

tidy  neatly arranged
整洁的;整齐的
housework  work done in taking care of a house
家务劳动

dreary  dull and uninteresting work
苦差使

scrub clean by rubbing hard, esp. with a stiff brush
擦洗

wage  工资;报酬

measure  an adequate or due portion
份儿

instinctively  本能的

scold  blame with angry words
申斥;怒骂

perceptive  感觉灵敏的

criticize  批评

squabble  quarrel, noisily and unreasonably
争吵, 口角

peacefully  in a peaceful manner; quietly
安静地

peaceful

quizzically  嘲弄地;疑惑地

drown  cover completely with water; cause to die by keeping under water
淹没; 使(某人)淹死

critical  fault - finding
挑剔的;苛求的

constructive  helping
建设性的

favo(u)rably  with approval
赞成地;称赞地

favo(u)rable

brief  using a few words; short

margin  blank space round the printed or written matter on a page
页面的空白

behavioral  of or relating to behavior
行为的

countless  too many to be counted

arithmetic  science of numbers
算术的

consistently
始科如一地;一贯地

consistent

previous  coming earlier in time or order
以前的

ignore  not to take notice of, pay no attention to
不理;忽视

dramatically  strikingly
显著地

dramatic

react  respond
反应

youngster  young person, esp. a boy

appreciative  thankful; grateful

investment  投资

invest

alert  watchful and keen
警觉的

excellence  an excellent or valuable quality; virtue


PHRASES  EXPRESSIONS
Make out  write out; complete or fill in
开出;填写

only too  very
极;非常

not much of a  not a very good
不十分好的

fish out   bring out after searching
掏出

shrug off dismiss as not deserving attention or as unimportant
耸肩表示对...不屑理睬

pat on the back  word or gesture of praise or encouragement
赞扬;鼓励

pass on  convey (to another)
传递

live on  depend upon for support
靠...生活


PROPER  NAMES
Janet Graham  珍妮特.格雷厄姆

Shakespeare  莎士比亚

Susanna  苏珊娜(女子名)

Mark Twain  马克.吐温

NOTES
1 This text is slightly adapted from Encounter edited by Joan G. Roloff.
2 Weary and discouraged, I didn't seem able to do anything right. = Because I "Weary and discouraged is used here as an adverbial of cause.
  More examples::
  Modest and easy to approach, Prof. Long soon put every one of us completely at ease.
  Now able to pay his own expenses, Einstein continued his schooling at the University of Zurich.
  Not discouraged by failures, they went on with their experiment and finally succeeded.
3 Why - when one word can bring such pleasure? = Why are we so (somehow) reluctant to give our fellows the warm sunshine of praise when one word can bring such pleasure?
4 Shakespeare, william (1564-1616): the greatest English dramatist and poet.
5 Mark Twain (1835-1910): pen name of Samuel Langhorne Clemens the greatest American writer and humorist.

STUDY PRACTICE
Words to Drill
Alert  apply  appreciate  comment
Constructive  convey  critical  criticize
Discourage  dozen  drown  earn 
Embarrass  exhaust  favo(u)rably
Generally  ignore  load  pat  previous
Profit  quit  react  reluctant  routine
Scold  somehow

Reading Aloud and Memorizing
1 Read the following paragraphs until you learn them by heart:
praise is like sunlight to the human spirit; we can not flower and grow without it. And yet, while most of us are only too ready to apply to others the cold wind of criticism, we are somehow reluctant to give our fellows the warm sunshine of praise.
Why - when one word can bring such pleasure? A friend of mine who travels widely always tries to learn a little of the language of any place she visits. She's not much of a linguist, but she does know how to say one word - "beautiful" - in several languages. She can use it to a mother holding her baby, or to a lonely salesman fishing out pictures of his family. The ability has earned her friends all over the world.

2 Read the following poem:
The Arrow and the Song
I shot an arrow into the air,
It fell to earth, I knew not where;
For, so swiftly it flew, the sight
Could not follow it in its flight.

I breathed a song into the air,
It fell to earth, I knew not where;
For who has sight so keen and strong,
That it can follow the flight of song?

Long, long afterwards, in an oak
I found the arrow, still unbroken;
And the song, from beginning to end,
I found again in the heart of a friend.
         Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
(1807-1882)

箭与歌
我向空中射出一支箭,
它落到地上,不知在何方,
因为它飞得那么迅疾,
眼力跟不上它的飞翔,

我向空中唱出一首歌,
它落到地上,不知在何方,
因为谁的眼力那么尖,那么强
.可以跟得上歌声的飞扬?

很久很久以后,在一棵橡树上.
我找到了那支箭,还没有折断.
而那首歌,从头到尾.
我也发现藏在一个朋友的心间.
享利. 瓦茨沃斯/ 朗费罗
(1807-1882)

comprehension of the Text
3 Choose the best answer for each of the following:
  1. Serving the family with several children in the restaurant added to
a. the writer's enjoyment of her job as a waitress.
b. the writer's weekly income.
c. the writer's weariness and discouragement.
d. the writer's feeling of helplessness.

  2. According to the writer, compliments are very difficult to give because
a. most people dislike to be praised
b.  the great majority of people don't know how to take them gracefully.
c. people tend to be uneasy and shrug off the remarks they are really so pleased to hear.
d. both b and c

  3. It's especially worthwhile to give praise to
a. a film star.
b. a paper boy.
c. a novelist.
d. a cook.

  4. According to the author, housework is thought of as a very dreary grind because
a. it is both dull and tiring.
b. it is so hard and dirty.
c. it is the hardest of all routine jobs.
d. it hardly gets any praise it deserves.

  5. The dialogue between the writer and her daughter suggests that
a. mothers know that it does their children more good to praise than to scold them.
b. mothers are not always conscious of the value of praise in handling their children.
c. mothers believe scolding does their children more good that harm.
d. mothers often criticize their children for no reasons at all.

  6. According to one teacher, rather than drown students' compositions in critical red ink, the teacher should
a. comment favorably on improvements over their previous work.
b. make sure his students hand in something above their usual standard.
c.. write a brief comment in the margin to please them.
d. . show his students that he is aware they are eager to be praised.

  7. One behavioral experiment with schoolchildren shows that
a. criticism yields more profits than praise.
b. praise produces far better results than criticism.
c. praise is just as helpful as criticism.
d. neither praise nor criticism does much good.

  8. Praise gladdens
a. the heart of the giver.
b. the heart of the receiver.
c. the heart of the investor.
d. the hearts of both the giver and the receiver.

4 Answer the following questions:
  1. How did the writer feel at the end of her first day as waitress in a restaurant?
  2. How did she feel towards the family with several children at first?
  3. How did it happen that her exhaustion vanished all of a sudden?
  4. What are praise and criticism compared to?
  5. Cite an example to show that one word of praise can earn you friends throughout the world.
  6. Why, according to the writer, are people so cautious of giving praise?
  7. Whay does the writer say that of all people a housewife should get her measure of praise?
  8. How will composition teachers get better results?
  9. What have behavioral scientists tried to prove with regard to human reactions to praise and criticism?
  10. Why does it cost the giver to give praise?
  11. Do you agree that we are often eager to criticize but reluctant to praise other people?
  Tell about your own behavior in regard to praise versus criticism.
  12. Give an example to show the different results of praise and criticism in your family or in your class.

6 Fill in the blanks with either "as" or "like"
  1. A man of words and not of deeds is ____ a garden full of weeds.
  2. They were united ____ one and finally drove the invaders (侵略者) out of their country.
  3. I beg you not to say anything ____ that to my parents.
  4. Sometimes he behaves ____ a fool.
  5. The bicycle, ____ a means of transportation in small towns is extremely convenient. (方便的).
  6. The millionaire is a miser(守财奴). Getting money from his is ____ getting blood from a stone.
  7.  ____ all his friends agree, Ben is warm- hearted, loving and generous.
8. ____ most of the teachers in the school, Mrs. Joyce loves the children and knows when to praise them and when to criticize them.

7 Replace the italicized parts with words or expressions from the text that best retain the meaning of the original sentences:
  1. The conceited artist seemed unwilling to accept other people's criticisms.
  2. Jane took out a button (圆形小徽章) from her pocket and pinned it on my coat.
  3. The driver paid no attention to the policeman's warning and finally got into trouble.
  4. Don't worry about my illness; what I need is only a few days' rest.
  5. Professor West has written out a list of books for us to read during the summer vacation.
  6. The magician waved his hand and suddenly the rabbit was out of sight.
  7. I shall be very please to come to your birthday party.
  8. Jack isn't a very good actor, although he is tall and handsome and has played a dozen roles in the past few years.
  9. After making observations for a week in the plant, the industrial engineer made a number of very helpful suggestions in am oral report to the manager.
  10. Although Bill didn't like the job, he was not going to give it up  He knew very well how difficult it would be to find another one.
  11. The problem began when our computer system for some reason or other failed to activate(开动) properly.
  12. Although I am not paid a great deal of money for this job, the pleasure I receive from the work makes it worthwhile.
  13. I often feel weary and need a rest after an extremely tiring day.
  14. It was a sad sight to see the houses so heavily flooded with water.

8 Fill in the blanks with suitable words or expressions from the list given below. Change the form where necessary.
Routine  alert to  appreciate  criticize
Discourage  comment  embarrass  live on
Earn  load  profit  pat  shrug of
Pass on  tend
  1. Peter was endlessly ____ by his father, who seemed to expect simply too much of him.
  2. The ____ we gained while working in this field were not only financial but also intellectual.
  3. Barbara ____ to get very impatient if you ask her more than two questions.
  4. The old couple now have nothing to ____ but a small government pension(养老金).
  5 A good hunting dog is ____ every sound and movement in the field.
  6. I received your message yesterday and have ____ it to all the comrades concerned.
  7. David looked very _____ when he was caught cheating on the aptitude test.
  8. In 1952 Hemingway published his masterpiece The Old Man and the Sea, which ____ him the Nobel Prize for literature in 1954.
  9. I ____ this oil painting much more now that you have explained it to me.
  10. The job, though not difficult, includes many ____ tasks which are quite boring.
  11. Given a ____ on the head, the dog will wag (摇动) its tail happily.
  12. Their criticisms deserve our full attention. They are not to be ____ .
  13. The truck was so heavily ____ with goods that driving it was difficult.
  14. After being turned down several times, the young man felt ____ at the thought of looking any further for jobs.
  15. The mayor refused to make any ____ on the charges against him.

9 Rewrite the following sentences, using the words given in brackets:
  1. Heavy smokers rarely take notice of the warning that smoking is harmful to health.
    (generally)
  2. Pleased with his students' progress, Professor Tyler praised them on more than one occasion.
  (a pat on the back)
  3. We have come to know the importance of applying theory to practice.
     (important, apply)
  4. When I was first learning to speak Spanish my errors in pronunciation often made me feel awkward.
(be embarrassed at)
  5. His unwillingness to take the job stemmed from (由...造成) the prospect of working under a conceited man.
    (make, reluctant)
  6. Have you any idea of the management's response to Sam's suggestions for improvement?
(react)

word Building
10 -ness is a suffix that can be added to adjectives to form nouns with the meaning "the quality or condition of being", e.g.
tiredness = the condition of being tired
warm-heartedness= the quality of being warm- hearted
-ure is a suffix that can be added to verbs to form nouns with the meaning "the act or fact of-ing" or "the condition or result of being -ed", e.g.
failure = the act of failing
pleasure= the condition of being pleased
add -ness or -ure to the adjectives or verbs given below and then fill in the blanks in the following sentences with some of them. Change the form where necessary
press ___  ill ___  prepared ___
old(勇敢的) effective ___ depart (离开)___
willing ___  careless ___  hopeless ___
expose(揭露) dark ___ friendly ___
cold ___ frank(直率的) ___ please ___
nervous___  great___  cold-blooded___
  1. I could not see the road properly because of the ____ .
  2. Enid seems to take great ____ in teaching English as a second language.
  3. My little brother is often criticized for showing great ____ in everything he does.
  4. We could feel the ____ in his attitude toward us.
  5. Emma changed her mind at the last minute under ____ from her parents.
  6. On the eve of his ___ Philip had a heart-to-heart talk with Frank.
  7. His ____ has earned him more friends than enemies.
  8. They were not yet aware of the ____ of their situation.
  9. There is no doubt about the ___ of the medicine, only it's a little too costly.
  10. The ___ of the real criminal cleared the innocent young man.

11 -ive is a suffix that can be used to form adjectives from nouns with the meaning "of or having to do with" e.g.
perception - perceptive
construction - constructive
action - active
appreciation - appreciative
  now translate the following into English:
1. 生产力
2. 保护性措施
3. 建设性的
4. 本能的恐惧
5. 富有表情的大眼睛
6. 一部给人留下深刻印象的电影
8. 创造性的工作
8. 决定性的胜利
9. 防御性的武器
10. 爆炸(explosion)性的局势

structure
12 Make sentences after one of the models, using the words and phrases given below:
  Model 1: strange, chary, we are, about, praising, it's, how
  It's strange how chary we are about praising.
  Model 2: that, a pity, to relay, seems, there isn't, pleasing and flattering, more effort, it, comments
  It seems a pity that there isn't more effort to relay pleasing and flattering comments.
  1. did not, a pity, he, come earlier, it's that
  2. smoking, it is, cause, a well-known fact, lung cancer, can, that
  3. encouraged him, it is, but, help him, true, actually, I, that didn't
  4. they, keep their promise, didn't seem, it, likely, that, would ever
  5. why for criticism, hard to understand, had singled out, Mary, it was Prof, Hardy
  6. most women, equal pay, unfair, do not earn, for equal work, it's  that

13 Rewrite the following sentences after the model, using "instead of"
  Model: The teacher should not drown students' compositions in critical red ink. He should try to find one or two things which have been done better than last time and comment favorably on them.
  Instead of drowning students' compositions in critical red ink, the teacher should try to find one or two things which have been done better than last time and comment favorably on them.
  1. We should not criticize Susan for what she has done. Instead, we ought to praise her for it.
  2. Helen did not go straight home after school. She went to work as a waitress in a restaurant.
  3. I am not going to send the book to Allan by post. I am going to take it to him myself.
  4. Dr. Wilson did not go to New York yesterday to attend his daughter's wedding. He flew to Florida for an emergency case.
  5. The villagers no longer use oil lamps. They have electric lights now.
  6. The news did not disturb Cathy. It had a strangely calming effect on her mind.

14 complete the following sentences with the words given below:
far more constructive
slightly more encouraging
considerably more efficient
much bigger
a little more difficult
25 per cent higher
  1. Our classroom is ____ than theirs.
  2. This text is ____ than the one we learned last week.
  3. Business prospects are ____ now than they were a year ago.
  4. Sam would have got ____ results if he had listened to the workers.
  5. The present system is ____ than the old one.
  6. The world output of crude oil that year was ____ than the previous year.

Cloze
15 put in the missing words:
(A)
The author, Janet Graham, writing about the p(__1__) of praise, tells us that praiseful c(__2__) are in fact much more c(__3__) than c(__4__) remarks. She recalls distinctly(清晰的) her first day as a waitress: Just as she was feeling so tired that she wanted to q(__5__), a compliment from a gentleman she had waited on removed her weariness. According to Graham, hard and dirty work which deserves to be a(__6__) is often I(__7__) even though it would be so easy to comment f(__8__) if the job is well-done. Without an occasional p(__9__) on the back, one may easily become d(__10__), particularly with r(__11__) tasks at work and dull household chores(家庭杂务) at home.
(B)
When I was about 12 I had an enemy, a girl who liked to point (__1__) my shortcomings. Week by week (__2__) list grew: I was skinny(皮包骨的), I wasn't good student, I (__3__) too loud, I was too proud, (__4__) so on and so forth. I put up (__5__) her as long as I (__6__). At last I ran to my father (__7__) tears and rage.
He listened to my outburst (__8__). Then he asked, "Are the (__9__) she says true- or not?"
True? I wanted to know how to st(__10__) back. What did truth have to do (__11__) it?
"Janet, didn't you ever w(__12__) what you're really like? Well, you now have that girl's (__13__). Go make a list of ev(__14__) she said and mark the points that are (__15__). Pay no attention to the (__16__) things," she said.
I did (__17__) he suggested and discovered to my (__18__) that about half the things (__19__) true. Some of then I couldn't (__20__) (like being skinny), but a good number I (__21__) - and suddenly I wanted to - change. (__22__) the first time in my life I got a fairly clear (__23__) of myself.

Translation
16 Translate the following sentences into English:
  1. 作者想通过这篇文章向读者传达她对赞扬与批评的看法.
  2. 这家餐馆十二名女侍中,只有三名先前有过干这种活儿的经历.
  3. 这位教师可能不是一个了不起的学者,但他的确懂得怎样把一门课教得活泼而有趣.
  4. 我们常常发现运用一个规律比懂得它要难得多.
  5. 她从不因为孩子们争吵便责骂他们,而是在他们安安静静地玩耍时赞扬几句.
  6. 格林先生老是挑他女儿写作的刺儿,但不知怎的,对她那首写得很差的诗歌却给予好评.。
  7. 我们班上有不少学生因没有按时交作文工团而受到教师的当众批评.
  8. 一位好的教师应对学生取得的进步非常敏感,如果学生的进步被忽视他们就会感到沮丧.

READING ACTIVTTY
Skill: A General Review of Reading Skills
    So far we have discussed the following specific reading skills that an efficient reader needs:
  1. How to Read a Text
  2. Reading in Thought Groups
3. Using Context Clues for Word Meanings.
4. Using Word Part Clues for Word Meanings
5. Reading for the Main idea
6. Recognizing Important Facts or Details
7. Looking for the Topic Sentence
8. Making Inferences While Reading
9. Drawing Conclusions While Reading
10. Understanding Figurative Language

Passage
Words to Know
Genius  天才

Elaborate  精制的

Glow  发光;容光焕发

Mood  心情;情绪

Arrival  到达

Employee  雇员

absolutely  绝对地

Crush  压碎

Poetry  诗

Fortunate  幸运的

Poet  诗人

Echo  回响

Harsh  苛刻的

Oppose  反对


My Wonderful Lousy Poem
When I was eight or nine years old, I wrote my first poem. My mother read the little poem and began to cry. "Buddy, you didn't really write this beautiful, beautiful poem!" Shyly, proudbursting, I stammered(结结巴巴地说) that I did. My mother poured out her praise. Why, this poem was nothing short of genius!
I glowed. "What time will Father be home?' I asked. I could hardly wait to show him what I had accomplished. My mother said she hoped he would be home around7. I spent the best(大半的) part of that afternoon preparing for his arrival. First, I wrote the poem out in my finest flourish (花体字). Then I used colored crayons(蜡笔) to draw an elaborate border around it. Then I waited. As 7 o'clock drew near, I confidently placed it right on my father's plate on the dining - room table.
But my father did not return at 7. Seven- fifteen. Seven- thirty. I could hardly stand the suspense(悬念). (1)I admired my father. He was head of Paramount Studios(派拉蒙电影公司) in Hollywood but he had begun his motion picture career as a writer. He would be able to appreciate this wonderful poem of mine even more than my mother.
This evening it was almost 8 o'clock when my father burst in. He was an hour late for dinner. (2)His mood seemed thunderous. He could not sit down but circled the long dining- room table with a drink in his hand, calling down terrible oaths(诅咒 on his employees.
"Imagine, we would have finished the picture tonight," my father was shouting. "Instead that moron suddenly gets in into her beautiful empty, little head that she can't play the last scene. So the whole company has to stand there at $ 1,00 a minute while this silly little blank walks off the set! And now I have to beg her to come back!"
He wheeled(旋转) in his pacing(蹁步), paused and glared at his plate. There was a suspenseful silence. "What is this?" He was reaching for my poem.
"Ben, a wonderful thing has happened," my mother began. "Buddy has written his first poem! And it's beautiful, absolutely amaz--"
"If you don't mind, I'd like to decide for myself," Father said.
I kept my face lowered to my plate as he read that poem. It was only ten lines. But it seemed to take hours. I could hear him dropping the poem back on the table. Now came the moment of decision.
"I think it's lousy," he said.
I couldn't look up. My eyes were getting wet.
"Ben, sometimes I don't understand you," my mother was saying. "This is just a little boy. You're not in your studio now. These are the first lines of poetry he's ever written. He needs encouragement."
"I don't know why," my father help his ground. "Isn't there enough lousy poetry in the world already? No law says Buddy has to become a poet."
I couldn't stand it another second. I ran from the dining - room up to my room, threw myself on the bed and sobbed. (3)When I had cried the worst of the disappointment out of me, I could hear my parents still quarreling over my first poem at the dinner table.
That may have been the end of the anecdote(轶事)-but not of its significance for me. A few years later I took a second look at the first poem. And reluctantly I had to agree with my father's harsh judgment. It was a pretty lousy poem. After a while, I worked up the courage to show him something new, a short story. My father thought it was overwritten but not hopeless. I was learning to rewrite. And my mother was learning that she could criticize me without crushing me. You might say we were all learning. I was going on 12.
As I worked my way into other books and plays and films, it became clearer and clearer to me how fortunate I had been. I had a mother who said, "Buddy did you really write this? I think it's wonderful!" and a father who shook his head no and drove me to tears with. "I think it's lousy."(4)A writer - in fact every one of us in life - needs that mother force alone is incomplete, even misleading, finally destructive. It needs the balance of the force that cautions, "Watch Listen. Review. Improve."
Those conflicting but complementary(互相补充的) voices of my childhood echo down through the years - wonderful ... lousy ... wonderful ... lousy - like two opposing winds battering (连续猛击) me. I try to steer my small boat so as not to turn over before either. Between the two poles of affirmation(肯定) and doubt, both in the name of love, I try to follow my true course.

Exercise A
Choose the best answer to each of the following questions:
  1. When the mother cried, "Buddy, you didn't really write this beautiful, beautiful poem!'
a. she didn't believe that her son had really written this beautiful poem.
b. she was not sure whether her son had written this poem.
c. she meant that an eight-or-nine-year-old boy could not have written such a wonderful poem.
d. she wanted to let her son know she was amazed that he had written such a beautiful poem.

  2. That afternoon the author spent a great deal of time
a. rewriting his poem.
b. drawing pictures around the poem.
c. carefully copying and decorating the poem.
d. Both a and b.

  3. Which of the following statements is NOT true according to the text?
a. The author was confident that his father would like the poem better than his mother did.
b. The author's father had once worked as a film script(剧本) writer and was them working as a film director.
c. The father returned home late and was very angry that evening.
d. They did not finish the film because the movie star refused to play the last scene.

  4. We may infer from the context that the word "lousy" means
a. very bad.
b. childish
c. meaningless
d. overwritten.

  5. "My father held his ground' could best be replaced by
a. "My father was shouting loudly."
b. "My father was very angry."
c. "My father refused to give in."
d. all of the above

  6. On hearing his father's judgment the author felt
a. pained
b. hurt
c. disappointed
d. all of the above

  7. Which of the following conclusions do you think the author might agree with?
a. This childhood event changed the author's course of life.
b. this event made the author all the more determined to become a writer.
c. Looking back on the event in his childhood, the author sees it in a new light and comes to realize its great significance.
d. From his "first poem' experience the author knew that he could never become a poet, so he started to work his way into stories, plays and films.

  8. The author owes his success as a professional writer
a. to his own courage and confidence.
b. more to his mother's praise than to his father's criticism.
c. more to his father's caution than to his mother's encouragement.
d. To both his mother's warm encouragement and his father's harsh judgment.

  9. Quite a few figurative expressions are used in the story. Two of them that appear in the last paragraph:" I try to steer my small boat ..." and "I try to follow my true course" are both
a. metaphors
b. similes
c. personifications
d. symbols.

  10. Another good title for this passage might be
a. An Anecdote in My Childhood.
b. Two Conflicting but Complementary Voices.
c. a scene to Remember.
d. An Important Lesson.

Exercise B
Translate into Chinese the underlined sentences in the passage.

GUIDED WRITING
Paragraph writing
Directions: Write a paragraph of 120-150 words arguing that praise is more profitable than criticism. You can support your arguments with examples from the text or from your own experience.

SUPPLEMENTARY READING IN POPULAR SCIENCE
Crazy Weather form the Bottom of the Sea
What causes the abnormal weather around the world? A geophysicist(地球物理专家) thinks he's found an answer - volcanoes on the floor of the Pacific Ocean.
Words to Know
Abnormal  反常的

Periodically  周期性的

Volcano  火山

The Pacific  太平洋

Steady  稳定的;不变的

Interior  内部

Odd  奇怪的

Precede  在... 之前;先于

Region  地区

Mess (with)  干扰

Scatter  散布

current  流,潮流

tropical  热带的

globe  地球

occurrence  发生

twist  扭转;弯曲

jet  喷流

“weird! (古怪)”That's what you're likely to hear if you ask anyone about the weather lately. New Hampshire and Vermont, for example, were so warm last January that skiing(滑雪) seemed like a far-off dream. And Northern California, not known for heavy rainfall, had a seven -day steady downpour. The resulting floods tore down ancient redwood trees!
If you think that's odd, check out the crazy weather in other regions: Parts of Australia recently went a full year without rain; huge dust clouds hung over cities and dead cattle scattered all over the fields. Meanwhile in Ecuador. South America, almost three meters of rain fell in six months - over a desert!
What periodically turns the world's weather upside down? Daniel Walker, a geophysicist at the University of Hawaii, thinks he's found an explanation - volcanoes on the floor of the Pacific Ocean!
"There are times," says Walker, "when the volcanoes just go mad," throwing up hot lava(熔岩) and gases from the earth's interior into the sea. And those outbreaks, he says, often precede weird weather events.
What's the connection? "There's a tremendous amount of energy in the form of heat being released on the ocean floor," Walker explains. That heat might be enough to warm part of the Pacific. The warm water, in turn, could heat up the air, disturbing the atmosphere, and mess with the world's weather.
What evidence does Walker have? Well, scientists have recently found thousands of active volcanoes on the floor of the Pacific Ocean. These volcanoes lie directly beneath an area of the ocean where scientists and fishermen have noticed the regular appearance of a warm-water current. The current appears off the west coast of South America around December every year. During some years the waters are abnormally warm and extend over a vast portion of the tropical Pacific. Scientists now commonly refer to there occurrences of abnormal warming as El Nino.
Most climate scientists agree that the abnormal warming has tremendous effects on the world's weather. El Nino warm water heats the air above, which lowers the air pressure. Clouds and rainfall from farther west in the pacific rush into the low-pressure. Zone. So in effect, El Nino "steals" weather (for example, rain) from the western Pacific (places like Australia) and carries it to the eastern Pacific -say, Ecuador.
In addition, the thunderclouds formed and carried by El Nino reach high up into the earth's atmosphere. There they break up the jet stream - bands of wind that normally blow steadily west to east around the globe.
The predictable movement of the jet stream is what normally carries storms and other weather patterns west to the east across the U.S. But El Nino's thunderclouds act like large rocks in a river. They make the jet stream take a northern turn here or a southern twist there, resulting in weird weather patterns.

Answer the following question:
  1. What do the first two paragraphs tell about?
  2. What is Daniel Walker's explanation about the crazy weather around the globe?
  3. What evidence does Walker have to support his explanation?
  4. What is El Nino?
  5. What effects does El Nino have eon the weather of the world?



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