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大学英语精读第2册 第9课 课文  

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UNIT 9

究竟什么是智力?-
阿西莫夫解释,为什么智力低些的反而能在智力测验时取得高分。

 

     作者:艾萨克·阿西莫夫

     究竟什么是智力?当我在军队里时我遇到一种所有士兵参加的能力测试,对应通常的100分,会给160分。基地里还没有人看到那样一种数字并且两个小时时间他们让我造成不必要的紧张(这不意味着任何事情。第二天做为我的最高的职位我仍然是一名厨房值勤的列兵。)

     在我的一生中,我一直在登记着那样的分数,以至于我产生了自满的感觉我是高智商的,并且我期待其他人也是这样认为。实际上,虽然如此的分数并不简单地表明我在回答那种典型的学术性问题时是很好的,这些问题被那些设计智力测验的人们认为值得回答——那些人的智力与我的近似?

     例如,我曾经有一名汽车修理工,我估计他在这些智力测验方面是不可能有高过80的分数。我总是据此以为我是比他聪明得多的。但是,我的汽车出了任何问题时我总是赶紧让他来维修,当他检查汽车的零部件时我烦恼地看着他,听着他的似乎是圣言的判断——并且他总能修好我的汽车。

    于是,就建议我的汽车修理工为一个智力测验设计问题。或者建议一位木匠这么做,或者一位农民,或者其他人,的确,除了院士以外的所有人。通过这些测验中的每一个证明,我自己是一个低能者。并且我已经是一名低能者。在一个我不能使用我所受的学院训练和我的口才但不得不用我的双手来做复杂或粗糙的工作的世界里,我会做得很糟糕。所以,我的智力不是绝对的。它的价值被我所生活的这个社会所决定。它的数字价值被这个社会的已经设计了它的一小部分人所决定并将其强加于做为如此事情的公断人的我们中的其他部分。

    再次考虑到我的汽车修理工。他有一个无论什么时候都告诉我笑话的习惯。有一次他从车头盖下面抬起头来说:"博士,一位聋哑小伙子走进硬件仓库要些钉子。他将两根手指头一起放在柜台上并用另一只手做锤的动作。这个伙计给他一把锤子。他摇头并指着他正在锤的两根手指头。这位伙计带给他钉子。他挑出他想要的尺寸的,离开了。好,博士,第二个进来的小伙子是瞎子。他想要剪刀。你建议他怎样要求它们?"

    我举起我的右手并用前面的两根手指头做剪的动作。随后我的汽车修理工开心地笑了并说,"为什么,你真蠢,他用他的声音来要求剪刀。"接着他沾沾自喜地说, "我今天已经在我所有的顾客身上试了。""你套住了多少?"我问。"相当少,"他说,"但我确信地知道我套住了你。""为什么呢?"我问。"因为你是如此受了教育,博士,我知道你是不可能很聪明的。"

    因此我有一种不舒服的感觉因为他说的有些道理。


TEXT
Asimov explains why there is much more in intelligence than just being able to score high on intelligence tests.
What I Intelligence, Anyway?
        Isaac Asimov
What is intelligence, anyway? When I was in the army I received a kind of aptitude test that all soldiers took and, against a normal of 100, scored 160. No one at the base had ever seen a figure like that and for two hours they made a bi fuss over me. (It didn't mean anything. The next day I was still a buck private with KP as my highest duty.)
All my life I've been registering scores like that, so that I have the complacent feeling that I'm highly intelligent, and I expect other people to think so, too. Actually, though, don't such scores simply mean that I am very good at answering the type of academic questions that are considered worthy of answers by the people who make up the intelligence tests - people with intellectual bents similar to mine?
For instance, I had an auto- repair man once, who, on these intelligence tests, could not possibly have scored more than 80, by my estimate. I always took it for granted that I was far more intelligent than he was. Yet, when anything went wrong with my car I hastened to him with it, watched him anxiously as he explored its vitals, and listened to his pronouncements as though they were divine oracles - and he always fixed my car.
Well, then ,suppose my auto-repair man devised questions for an intelligence test. Or suppose a carpenter did, or a farmer, or, indeed, almost anyone but an academician. By every one of those tests, I'd prove myself a moron. And I'd be a moron, too. In a world where I could not sue my academic training and my verbal talents but had to do something intricate or hard, working with my hands, I would do poorly. My intelligence, then is not absolute. Its worth is determined by the society I live in. Its numerical evaluation is determined by a small subsection of that society which has managed to foist itself on the rest of us as an arbiter of such matters.
Consider my auto-repair man, again. He had a habit of telling me jokes whenever he saw me. One time he raised his head from under the automobile hood to say:" Doc, a deaf-and-dumb guy went into a hardware store to ask for some nails. He put two fingers together on the counter and made hammering motions with the other hand. The clerk brought him a hammer. He shook his head and pointed to the two fingers he was hammering. The clerk brought him nails. He  picked out the sizes he wanted, and left. Well, doc, the next guy who came in was a blind man. He wanted scissors. How do you suppose he asked for them?"
I lifted my right hand and made scissoring motions with my first two fingers. Whereupon my auto-repair man laughed heartily and said, "Why, you dumb fool, he used his voice and asked for them." Then he said, smugly, "I've been trying that on all my customers today." "Did you catch many?" I asked. "Quite a few," he said, "but I knew for sure I'd catch you." "Why is tat?" I asked. "Because you're so goddamned educated, doc, I knew  you couldn't be very smart."
And I have an uneasy feeling he had something there.

NEW WORDS
Aptitude  natural ability or sill
能力.才能

normal  the usual state or level
正常的状态或水平

figure  数字

fuss  unnecessary expression of excitement, anger, impatience, etc.
大惊小怪

buck private  common soldier of the lowest rank
列兵

kp  kitchen police (a military duty of helping the cooks prepare and serve the food, wash the dishes, and clean up the kitchen)
炊事值勤(员)

register  achieve; write in a list or record
取得;登记

complacent  self-satisfactory; pleased with oneself
自满的;自鸣得意的

highly  to a great degree; very

simply  just; only
仅仅;只不过

academic  scholarly, theoretical, not practical; of a college or university
学术的;学究的;学院的

worthy (of)  deserving
值得的

bent  natural  tendency or inclination
嗜好;倾向

similar  alike; of the same sort
类似的

auto  (short for) automobile
汽车

estimate  judgment or opinion about how much how many, how good, ect
估计

grant  give or allow (what is asked for)
授予;准予

hasten  go fast; be quick
赶快;急忙

explore  search or examine thoroughly
探索;探究

vitals  essential parts of anything; the main bodily organs
主要部件.(人体的)重要器官

pronouncement  formal or authoritative statement; opinion
声明;见解

divine  coming from God; sacred
神的;神圣的

oracle  圣言;神谕

devise  think out; plan
想出;设计

carpenter  木匠

academician  member of an art, literary or scientific academy or society
院士;学会会员

moron  stupid person
低能者;蠢人

verbal  connected with words and their use; spoken, not written
词语的;口头的

intricate  complicated
错综复杂的

absolute  not measured by comparison with other things
绝对的

determine  fox or find out exactly
确定

numerical  of a number; shown by numbers
数字的;用数字表示的

evaluation

evaluate

subsection  part of a section
小组;分部

foist  force on another person by fraud or trickery
把...强加于

arbiter  judge
仲裁人;公断人

joke  said or done to cause laughter or amusement

automobile  汽车

hood  (汽车)引擎罩

doc  (short for )doctor

deaf  unable to speak; stupid
哑的;愚笨的

deaf-and-dumb  unable to hear and speak

hardware  metal goods such as utensils, tools, nails, etc
金属器具

hammer  锤子;榔头
strike repeatedly (with a hammer)

clerk  salesclerk; person who works in a shop selling things
店员

scissors  剪刀

scissor  cut with scissors

whereupon  upon, at , or after which
于是;因此;然后

heartily  尽情地

smugly  complacently
沾沾自喜地

goddamned  very extremely

uneasy  awkward; not easy in mind or body
局促的;不安的;不安适的


PHRASES  EXPRESSIONS
Make a fuss of/over  为...大惊小怪

Worthy of  deserving
值得

make up  prepare ready for use
编制;配制

by one's estimate  据某人估计

take sth for granted  regard it as true or as certain to happen
认为某事当然

go wrong  stop working properly
出毛病

pick out  select
挑选

try... on   在...身上试验

for sure  for certain; certainly
确切地;肯定


PROPER NAMES
Lsaac Asimov  艾萨克. 阿西莫夫

NOTES
1 This text is slightly adapted from Insight edited by Emil Hurtik.
2 Isacc Asimov (1920-1992): Russian -born American author, former professor of biochemistry at 3Boston University School of Medicine, and author of more than 200 books.
3 aptitude text: a standardized test given to a person to measure his ability to develop sills or acquire knowledge.
4 intelligence test: a standardized test used to establish an intelligence level rating by measuring an individual's ability to form concepts, solve problems, acquire information, reason, and perform other intellectual operations.
5 ... he had something there: ... there was some truth in what he said.

STUDY PRACTICE
Words to Drill
Absolute  academic  aptitude  determine
Devise  dumb  estimate  evaluation 
Explore  figure  grant  hasten  highly
Joke  normal  register  similar
Simply  uneasy  worthy
Reading Aloud and Memorizing
1 Read the following paragraph until you learn it by heart:
well, then ,suppose my auto -repair man devised questions for an intelligence test. Or suppose a carpenter did, or a farmer, or, indeed, almost anyone but an academician. By every one of those tests, I'd prove myself a moron. And I'd be a moron, too. In a world where I could not use my academic training and my verbal talents but had to do something intricate or hard, working with my hands, I would do poorly. My intelligence, then, is not absolute. Its worth is determined by the society I live in. Its numerical evaluation is determined by a small subsection of that society which has managed to foist itself on the rest of us as an arbiter of such matters.

Comprehension of the Text
2 Choose the best answer for each of the following:
  1. The normal score of the aptitude test is
a. 160.
b. 80
c. 100
d. 14

  2. The author's exceptionally high score on the aptitude test
a. caused much trouble at the base.
b. gave rise to much excitement at the base.
c. won him quick promotions.
d. helped him to get the position he desired.

  3. The author thinks that all his high scores simply mean that
a. he is highly intelligent.
b. he is good at answering a certain type of academic questions.
c. he can do better than others in anything he tries.
d. he is more intelligent than manual workers.

  4. The author used to believe that
a. he was far more intelligent than his auto- repair man.
b. the auto-repair man was more intelligent than he was.
c. they were equals in intelligence.
d. they were smart in different ways.

  5. When it came to fixing the car, the author
a. had full confidence in his auto -repair man.
b. had doubts about his auto-repair man's ability.
c. listened to God's advice.
d. had no idea who he should turn to for help.

  6. If the auto-repair man devised an intelligence test,
a. the author would score high.
b. the author would score low.
c. the author would get an average score.
d. the author would still score above average.

  7. In the author's view, intelligence
a. is a relative matter.
b. is absolute.
c. can not be measured.
d. can be evaluated in different ways.

  8. When the author answered the auto-repair man's question about asking for scissors.
a. he thought the question was interesting.
b. he was not sure about his answer.
c. he thought the question was not worthy of an answer.
d. he thought the question was tricky.

  9. When the auto-repair man tried the tricky question on the author.
A. he had no idea what the result would be.
b. he was certain that the author would be caught.
c. he knew that the author would give the correct answer.
d. he knew that the author would give an unusual answer.

  10. In the opinion of the auto-repair man.
a. educated people are more intelligent.
b. there is no difference between the intelligence of educated and uneducated people.
c. too much education only makes a person stupid sometimes.
d. IQ tests don't mean a thing.

3 Questions for discussion:
  1. What does the author mean when he says that his intelligence is not absolute?
  Do you agree with him? Why or why not?
  2. We often hear people say that a man of high intelligence can be stupid in practical matters. Do you think there is something true in it? Give examples to support your view.

Vocabulary
4 replace the italicized parts with words or expressions from the text that best retain the meaning of the original sentence.
  1. Don't get so excited and worry about unimportant matters.
  2. Martin's article on present-day economics (经济学) deserves careful study.
  3. Because this is the first day of the new program, we can not say with certainty how it will be received.
  4. The workers asked for a raise and threatened to go on strike if their request was not fulfilled.
  5. The examination is designed to find out the students' strengths and weaknesses in different academic subjects.
  6. He went to the bookstore and selected two books for his daughter as a birthday present.
  7. We didn't send you an invitation, as we were certain that you would be coming.
  8. Without a careful check no one knows for sure what is the matter with the machine..
  9. The tree, I guess, is more than twenty meters in height.
  10Even though the two candidates(候选人) are from different parties, they have almost the same views on politics.
  11I think it is very unl9ikely that he will get the job; however, it may be worth a try.
  12Though I do well in my history and language classes, I feel quite stupid when it comes to math an science.

5 Fill in the blanks with suitable words or expressions from the list given below:
simply  devise  uneasy  academic 
register  aptitude  evaluation  talent
explore  absolute  hasten  figure
try on  joke  normal
  1. Bob is a most reliable person. He has our ____ trust.
  2. This article, though very useful and informative(使人增长知识的), is much too ____ for the average reader.
  3. I ____ to tell my family the good news about my being admitted to Harvard.
  4. The boy had to difficulty in working out those ____.
  5. A group of researchers have discovered a new medical herb, which they have ____ a large number of patients and found to have great healing power.
  6. I have been working for months to ____ a way of solving this problem, but as yet I have not been successful.
  7. If you give up music, you'll waste your ____ .
  8. Although his statement was treated as a _____, he was quite serious about what he was saying.
  9. Behavior which may be considered quite strange in one culture is often looked upon as completely ____ in another.
  10. Hospitals always make me feel ____, especially when I am the one who must see the doctor.
  11. He ____ the economic and social conditions of the period, trying to find the real causes of the French Revolution.
  12. Her explanations were ______ poor excuses.
  13. Most students ____ over 90% in the exam; few, in fact, scored below 80%.
  14. Bill has a natural _____ for thinking out difficult problems.
  15. All employees are given a yearly -___, which decides whether or not their contracts (合同) will be renewed for the coming year.

6 Express the meaning of each of the following sentences, using the words given in brackets:
  1. We are bound to win.
(for sure)
  2. Do you think there is likeness between the tall buildings in Shenzhen and the skyscrapers in Manhattan, New York?
(similar to)
  3. The fewer the mistakes you make, the higher the marks you will receive in an examination.
(the number of mistakes, determine)
  4. The president's speech merely(只不过) repeated what he had stated on previous occasions.
  5. At its completion, the house cost a lot more than what the builders had originally calculated.
(the final cost, estimate)
  6. Mrs. Park was anxious with suspicion that her son was really guilty as charged.
(uneasy, suspicion)

7 Sometimes, as in the sentence "... he raised his head from under the automobile hood...", a preposition can be followed by a prepositional phrase.
  More examples:
  Jack won't go home until after the concert.
  Your composition is quite all right except for a few spelling mistakes.
  Now fill in the following blanks with suitable prepositions:
  1. The cobra crawled out ____ ____ the table.
  2. After a brief thunderstorm(雷暴), the sun emerged ____ _____ the clouds.
  3. Half of the committee members were chose ____ ____ the women workers.
  4. Dr. Smith is too busy to spare us any time ____ ____ Sunday.
  5. You have to wait here ____ ____ sunset.
  6. All was darkness ____ ____ an occasional glimmer(微弱的闪光) in the distance.
  7. Mr. Dewis, our general manager, seldom goes anywhere ____ ____ his office.
  8. Most of her poems were not published ____ ____ her death in 1886.

Word Building
8 The suffix -y can be added to nouns to form adjectives with the meaning "like ..." "having ..." "full of ..." "characterized by ..." For example,
boss--bossy   hair-hairy  sand-sandy
worth-worthy.
  It can also be added to verbs to form adjectives with the meaning "inclined to ..." For example.
Sleep-sleepy.
  Now translate the following into English:
1. 红润的玫瑰色的脸颊     
2. 有益健康的活动
3. 一个爱大惊小怪的人
4. 多去的天灾人
5. 一个有趣的故事
6. 水汪汪的眼睛
7. 由衷的祝福
8. 波浪形的头发
9 .可口的食物
10. 冗长的演讲
11. 银铃般的嗓音
12. 和煦的日子
13. 多雪的冬天
14. 喧闹的教室

9 The prefix sub- can be added to nouns, adjectives and verbs with the meaning "under", "lower than", "further", For example.
Way-subway     normal-subnormal
Section-subsection   divide-subdivide
  Now try to translate the following into English:
1. 下意识,潜意识
2. 小组委员会
3. 副标题
4. 不够标准的
5. 次大陆
6. 低于平均水平的
7 .次要情节
8. 预备级

10 Clip (裁减) the following words:
  Models: telephone phone (front clipping)
  Because  'cox (front clipping)
  Photograph  photo (back clipping)
  Microphone  mike (back clipping)
Advertisement  aeroplane  automobile
Bicycle  doctor  dormitory
Examination  kilogram  laboratory
Mathematics  taxicab  zoological garden

Structure
11 Study the following models, paying special attention to word order, and then rewrite the following sentences, putting in the phrases given in brackets:
  Model 1: What is intelligence? (do you think)
  What do you think is intelligence?
  Model 2: How did he ask for them? (do you suppose)
  How do you suppose he asked for them?
  1. How long did he wait? (did he tell you)
  2. Which mountain did they try to climb? (did they say)
  3. When shall we meet again? (do you suggest)
  4. How many passengers does the boat take? (do you suppose)
  5. Where were the ancient coins found? (did they say)
  6. Who will be the likeliest candidate for the Presidency? (do you think)
  7. Why did he choose to remain single? (do you guess)
  8. What will he buy as Christmas presents for his children? (do you expect)

12 Combine the following pairs of sentences after the models:
  Model 1: I have a complacent feeling.
  I feel that I'm highly intelligent.
  I have the complacent feeling that I'm highly intelligent.
  Model 2: He is growing old.
  Nothing could hide the tact.
  Nothing could hide the tact that he is growing old.
  1. He works hard.
  The fact does not necessarily mean that he is a competent leader.
  2. He explained that he didn't see the notice.
  The explanation is unsatisfactory.
  3. He cheated on exams.
  The fact was revealed in the end.
  4. He holds that there is no advantage in introducing the new method.
  Most of us don't agree with his view.
  5. He won the first gold medal at the 23rd Olympic Games.
  The news soon spread throughout the country.
  6. He has suggested that intelligence is a relative matter.
  His suggestion is not universally accepted.
  7. I moved (提议) that the vote be postponed.
  He seconded(附议) my motion.
  8. Suzy is the right person for the job.
  There can be no doubt about it.

13 Combine the following pairs of sentences by using "it" as the formal object:
  Model: I was far more intelligent than he was.
  I always took that for granted.
  I always took it for granted that I was far more intelligent than he was.
  1. You were unable to attend our meeting.
  We all thought that was a pity.
  2. You should mind your manners.
  We consider that is important.
  3. He was too ill to go on working.
  He didn't want that to be known.
  4. Every one of you should finish you homework on time.
  I regard that as important.
  5. His father would come to his help if he got into trouble.
  He took that for grated.
  6. He might change his mind at the last minute.
  We thought that was highly probable.
  7. The train will be delayed by the dense fog.
  I think that is likely.
  8. You should stop smoking.
  The doctor thinks that is advisable.

Cloze
14 Put in the missing words:
(A)
    Scientist and science-fiction writer Isaac Asimov e(__1__) the question of intelligence in this article. He begins with his recollection of an a (__2__) test on which he had scored far above n(__3__). This indicated that he was a h(__4__) intelligent individual; however, Asimov questions whether such scores are w____ o(__5__) the attention they receive. To make his point, he gives the example of a garage mechanic who, though lacking in a(__6__) knowledge, has an ability far beyond Asimov's to d(__7__) causes of automotive problems and solve them. Indeed, in an area such as mechanics(机器等的结构), Asimov admits that he could be considered quite d(__8__). Intelligence, therefore, is not a(__9-_) but relative. This has led Asimov to make an e(__10__) of such aptitude tests, whose worth, it seems, should not be t____ f____ g(__11__).
(B)
Machines are complete mysteries to me, which has resulted (__1__) some awkward situations (embarrassing service calls) at my home. For (__2__), there was the time I called in a (__3__) to fix my refrigerator (__4__) it was too warm. Just imagine how(__5__) I was when he told me that the (__6__) of the problem was a dirty filter(滤器), (__7__) I didn't know existed and therefore hadn't been (__8__) even once in the two years we (__9__) the refrigerator. The best example of my ignorance(__10__) machines, however, has to be the time I called someone to (__11__) my washing machine. The repairman's solution was (__12__) to put the plug(插头) back (__13__) the outlet(电源插座) from which it had been shaken loose by the (__14__) vibration(振动) of the washer.

Translation
15 Translate the following into English:
  1. 一切都表明他的计划出了毛病.
  2. 作者认为,我们不应想当然地以为那些智力测验得分高的人在实际工作中就一定能干得好.
  3. 我挑出几条英语成语(idiom),考了一下我的同班同学.
  4. 三位教授被请来对新教员设计的教案作出评估.
  5. 这对我们来说是个很小的损失,不要大惊小怪.
6. 他比任何对手的得分都高得多,证明他不愧为一个胜利者.
  7. 这两只动物外貌很相似,但它们属于不同的种类.
  8. 我并不确切知道他申请的贷款(loan)银行是否会给.

READING ACTIVTTY
Skill: Reading Comprehension Skill V
        Understanding Figurative Language
Just as painters draw pictures in colours, so writers paint pictures in words. They use figurative language - language that compares - to produce images in their descriptions or narrations.
1. Some times non- human things are given human features (personification 拟人:)
-- The front garden was a gravel square; four evergreen shrubs stood at each corner, where they struggled to survive the dust and fumes from a busy main road.
-- "Help, let me in, please let me in!" But the houses were cold, closed, unfriendly ...
2. Sometimes comparisons are made using the words like or as (simile明喻:)
-- The cheque fluttered to the floor like a bird with a broken wing.
-- He looked at me with an air of surprised disapproval, as a colonel might look at a private whose bootlaces were undone.
3. More often comparisons are not stated but suggested (metaphor 暗喻:)
--This century ... man has started to look into the workings of that other universe which is inside himself - the human brain.
--His famous will ... is a memorial to his interest and ideas.
-- I am a ministering angel in a Mini with a heavy coat and a bag of medicine.
-- There were no more butterflies in my stomach when I opened up an abdomen or a chest.
--The Bathtub Navy
Figurative language is an important stylistic device that writers use. It makes their description or narration more vivid and interesting. Understanding figurative language is an important reading skill which helps readers to recognize the "secret power" of words and appreciate the sensory impressions and emotional reactions created by authors.

Exercise A
Distinguish between simile, metaphor and personification in the following:
  1. Time and tide wait for no man.
  2. He is as stupid as an ass(驴)
  3. Dr. Grey is a walking encyclopedia(百科全书).
  4. All reactionaries are paper tigers.
  5. An idea spoke within him, racing through his mind.
  6. The wind whistled through the trees.
  7. I wandered lonely as a cloud.
  That floats on high o'er vales and hills.
  8. All the world's stage.
  And all the men and women merely players.

Passage
Read the passage and do Exercises B and C that follow it.
Words to Know
Pin  大头针

Proportion  比(例),比(率)

Colleague  同事

Basic  基本的

Aid  帮助

Measurement  测量,衡量

Lower  放下

Method  方法

Credit  学分

Sophisticated  复杂的

Contribute  贡献

Swing  使摆动

Confirm  证实

Conventional  常规的

Lean  屈身

Inner  内部的

Formula  公式

Structure  结构

Calculate  计算

Angels on a pin
Alexander Calandra
Some time ago, I received a call from a colleague who asked if I would be the referee on the grading of an examination question. (1)He was about to give a student a zero for his answer to a physics question, while the student claimed he should receive a perfect score and would if the system were not set up against the student. The instructor and the student agreed to submit this to an impartial arbiter, and I was selected.
I went to my colleague's office and read the examination question: "Show how it is possible to determine the height of a tall building with the aid of a barometer(气压表)"
The student had answered: "Take the barometer to the top of the building attach a long rope to it, lower the barometer to the street, and then bring it up, measuring the length of the rope. The length of the rope is the height of the building."
(2)I pointed out that the student really had a strong case(强有力的论据) for full credit(满分), since he had answered the question completely and correctly. On the other hand, if full credit were given, it could well contribute to a high grade for the student in his physics course. A high grade is supposed to certify (证明) competence in physics, but the answer did not confirm(证实) this. I suggested that the student have another try at answering the question. I was not surprised that my colleague agreed, but I was surprised that the student did.
I gave the student six minutes to answer the question, with the warning that his answer should show some knowledge of physics. At the end of five minutes, he had not written anything. I asked if he wished to give up, but he said no. He had many answers to this problem; he was just thinking of the best one. I excused my self for interrupting him, and asked him to please go on. In the next minute, he dashed off(匆匆写出) his answer which read:
"Take the barometer to the top of the building and lean over the edge of the roof. Drop the barometer, timing its fall with a stopwatch(跑表). Then ,using the formula S=1/2at2, calculate the height of the building."
At this point, I asked my colleague if he would give up. He conceded(让步). And I gave the student almost full credit.
In leaving my colleague's office, I recalled that the student had said he had other answers to the problem, so I asked him what they were. "Oh, yes," said the student. "There are many ways of getting the height of a tall building with the aid of a barometer. (3)For example, you could take the barometer out on a sunny day and measure the height of the barometer, the length of its shadow, and the length of the shadow of the building, and by the use of a simple proportion, determine the height of the building."
"Fine," I said. "And the others?"
"Yes," said the students. "There is a very basic measurement method that you will like. In this method, you take the barometer and begin to walk up the stairs. As you climb the stairs, you mark off the length of the barometer along the wall. Y ou then count the number of marks, and this will give you the height of the building in barometer units. A very direct method."
"Of course, if you want a more sophisticated method, you can tie the barometer to the end of a string, swing it as a pendulum(钟摆), and determine the value of 'g' at the street level and at the top of the building, From the difference between the two values of 'g', the height of the building can, in principle, be calculated."
Finally he concluded, there are many other ways of solving the problem. "Probably the best," he said, "is to take the barometer to the basement and knock on the superintendent's (主管人)" door. When the superintendent answers, you speak to him as follows: 'Mr. Superintendent, here I have a fine barometer. If you will tell me the height of this building, I will give you this  barometer.'
At this point, I asked the student if he really did not know the conventional (常规的) answer to this question. (4)He admitted that he did, but said that he was fed up with(厌烦) high school and college instructors trying to teach him how to think, to use the "scientific method", and to explore the deep inner logic of the subject in a pedantic(学究式的) way, as is lf ten done in the new mathematics, rather than teaching him the structure of the subject. With this in mind, he decided to revive(复兴) scholasticism(烦琐经院哲学) as an academic lark (玩笑) to challenge the Sputnik- panicked classrooms of America.

Exercise B
Answer the following questions:
  1. What does the expression "impartial arbiter" mean?
  Could you find a word in the same paragraph that practically means the same thing?
  2. Complete the elliptical sentence "... and would if the system were not set up against the student."
  What does the "system" refer to?
  Does "the student" here refer to a student in particular or to students in general?
  3. Which of the following statements is true?
a. the author thought the student should be given full credit because he had provided a complete and correct answer.
b. the author thought the student could only get a low grade since his answer did not show his knowledge of physics.
c. the author thought the student's answer did not meet the teacher's requirement but the answer was complete and correct in itself.
d. The author simply did not know how to form a judgment on this matter, so he suggested that the student have another try.

  4. The author felt somewhat surprised when the student agreed to have another try. The reason for his surprise might be that
a. he never expected the student to yield(让步) so easily.
b. he thought the student had not answered the question as required because he did not know how.
c. he thought the student would probably not be able to provide an acceptable answer.
d. all of the above.

  5. Which of the following statements is NOT true?
a. it was not until the last minute that the student worded out this question in the way his teacher had expected.
b. the student's teacher agreed that the student would be given almost full credit.
c. the student said he had many answers to this problem and he really did.
d. what the student called "a more sophisticated method" is applicable in principle but may not be so in practice.
 
  6. the main point of this essay is that
a. students should not question an instructor's evaluation.
b. a student should question an instructor's grade if he has good reasons.
c. students should be encouraged to think creatively.
d. physics is a boring subject.

  7. Do you have any idea about the "conventional" answer to this question?
  Why did the student refuse to give the required answer though he knew it?
  8. Which was more important according to the student, the teaching of "scientific methods" or the teaching of the structure of a subject?
  9. The title of this essay was drawn from a popular debate among scholastic philosophers in the Middle Ages about how many angels could stand on the head of a pin. What do you think the author uses this title to imply?
  10. What does the expression "to revive scholasticism as an academic lark" mean?

Exercise C
Translate into Chinese the underlined sentences in the passage.

GUIDED WRITING
PART I
Skill: Transition LL
Besides the three devices discussed in the last unit, there is another basic way to achieve good transition in a paragraph.
4 Use a transitional word or phrase to point out the thought relationship between sentences. Here is a list of some commonly used transitional expressions:
  (1) Words that denote addition: and, again, also, too, besides, moreover, furthermore, in additon
  (2) Words that denote examples: for example, for instance, to illustrate
  (3) Words that denote comparison or contrast: similarly, in the same way, equally important, in contrast, on the other hand, however, nevertheless, instead, yet, but, although, meanwhile.
  (4) Words that denote results or conclusions: therefore, consequently, so, thus, as a result, in conclusion, to conclude, to sum up
  (5) Words that denote concession: of course, although, it is true
  (6) Words that denote time or order of importance: first (second, third,) now, before, after, next, then, later, once, finally, after that, first of all, to begin with, until, more important, most important

Choose proper transitional expressions from the list given below to fill in the blanks in the following paragraphs:
Although  but  instead  then
First(of all)  second  third  fourth
Finally  furthermore  consequently
Once  sometimes  at other times 
In contrast  for example  in addition

  1. European universities and universities in the United States are different in many ways. ____, European students enroll in fewer courses each term than United States students do. _____, European students seldom live at a university. ____ ,they live at home and travel to classes. ____ , most European courses are given by professors who lecture to their classes. ____, United States professors often ask their students questions or allow their students to form discussion groups. ____ , European professors ask students to write fewer papers than United States professors do. ___, European students' final examinations are usually oral, whereas American students take written final examinations. ____ , a European university is mainly a place to study. ____ at most United States universities, social activities take up a large part of the students' time.

  2. perhaps the most unforgettable person I have ever met is Prof. Smith who taught us philosophy at university. ____ I last met him eight years ago, I still remember his special qualities most distinctively. ____ , I was impressed by his devotion to teaching. Because his lectures were always well prepared and clearly delivered, students swarmed into his classroom. His followers appreciate the fact that he believed in what he taught and that he was intellectually stimulating. ___ , he could be counted on to explain his ideas in an imaginative way, introducing such aids to understanding as paintings, recordings, pieces of sculpture and guest lecturers. ___ he even sang a song in class to illustrate a point. ____ , I admired the fact that he would meet with students outside of the classroom or talk to them on the telephone. ___ he would challenge a student to a game of chess. ___ , he would join groups to discuss subjects ranging from astronomy to pop music. ____ , I was attracted by his lively wit. He believed that no class hour is a success unless the students and the professor share several chuckles and at least one loud laugh. Through his sense of humor, he made learning more enjoyable and more lasting. If it is true that life makes a wise man smile and a foolish man cry, ____ Prof. Smith is truly a wise man.

PART II
Paragraph Writing
Directions: Write a paragraph of 120-150 words explaining Isaac Asimov's view of intelligence. You are required to cite his auto repairman as an example to support his argument.

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