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大学英语精读第2册 第3课 课后阅读补充  

2009-01-22 10:56:21|  分类: 英语 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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READING ACTIVTTY
Skill: (Reviewing Work)
So far we have discussed six reading skills:
  1. How to Read a Text
  2. Reading in Thought Groups
  3. Using Context Clues for Word Meanings.
  4. Using Word Part Clues for Word Meanings
  5. Reading Paragraphs for Main Ideas.
  6. Reading Paragraphs for Supporting Details

Passage
In this unit you are to be given further practice in trying these skills in your reading. Now read the following article and then do Exercises A, B and C that come after it.
Words to Know
Leader 领袖,领导得

Memorial  纪念堂(碑)

Border  接界;近似

unlike  不像,和... 不同

worship  崇拜

temple  神殿,庙宇

Greek  希腊
 
Withdraw  退出

Annual  每年的,年度的

Individual  个别的

Ceremony  典礼,仪式

Federal  联邦的

Characteristic  特性,特征

Preserve  维护

Leadership  领导

Infinite  无限的

Popular  大众的;流行的

Capable  有能力的,有才能的

Belief  信仰

generous  宽宏大量的

opportunity  机会

opponent  敌手,对手,反对者

manual  用手的;体力的

thoughtful  关心的,体贴的,考虑周到的

labor  劳动

split  劈开

treatment  待遇,对待

rail  栏杆,转栏

hatred  仇恨

lawyer  律师

procession  队伍,行列

speaker  演讲人

former  以前的

represent  代表

parade  使受检阅,展示

union  团结,联合

torch  火炬,火把

civil  公民的,国内的

circumstance  情况,境遇

economy  经济

apart  分开

pressure  压力

policy  政策

congress  国会,议会

emphasize  强调

western  西方的,西部的

virtue  美德;优点

territory  领土,区域

The American Ideal of a Great Leader
1  Of all figures from American's past, Abraham Lincoln is dearest to the hearts of the American people. In fact, the admiration they have for his borders n worship.(1)Writers note that the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D. C. is not unlike the temples that ancient Greeks built in honor of their goods, and that annual ceremonies of celebrating Lincoln's birthday in schools and public places have sometimes had characteristics of religious services(仪式). Certainly Lincoln is Americans admire.

2  First of all, Lincoln's career fits a popular American belief that every child can dream of becoming President. (2)Americans admire the self-made person-the one who, with neither money nor family influence, fights his or her way to the top. Lincoln  was born of poor parents. His mother died when he was young. He had little opportunity for schooling. His early study was done alone at night by the light of a fireplace. He did hard manual labor through the day - splitting rails for fences, taking care of livestock(牧畜), working on a riverboat or in a store. But as he grew older he studied law in his spare time and became a lawyer. He was a good speaker and student of political philosophy. His ability finally made a name for him and eventually he became President of the United States.
3  Lincoln is also admired because of his leadership during the difficult period of the Givil War. He dared to do what he thought was right at a time when his beliefs were unpopular with many people. He, in a sense, represents the spirit of union among the states. Before the Givil War, the economy of the South depended on an agricultural system which made use of slave labor. (3) When reformers(改革家) in the northern states put pressure on Congress not to permit slavery in western territories that later became states, some of the southern states wanted to secede, or withdraw, from the United States. They argued that the question of slavery was a matter for the individual states to decide rather than the federal government, and they did not want to accept its decision. The national government said that no state had the right to secede, and the Givil War was the result. If the South had won the war, what is now the United States might well have been divided into several countries. Lincoln worked hard to preserve the union, and the northern states were victorious.
4  Furthermore, Lincoln had many personal qualities that made him dear to the hearts of his countrymen. He had infinite patience and tolerance for those who disagreed with him. (4)As President, he appointed men to high government positions whom he considered most capable, even though some of them openly scorned(蔑视) him. He was generous to his opponents. There are many stories about his thoughtful treatment of southern leaders. When the war was over, he showed the South no hatred. Since generosity toward a defeated opponent is admired by Americans, Lincoln fitted the national ideal of what is right.
5  Shortly after the Givil War ended, Lincoln was shot while attending a play in a Washington theater. He died within a few hours.(5)The uncontrolled emotional reaction of the nation to his death was almost unbelievable and demonstrated the deep esteem(尊重) in which he was held. Newspapers were edged(加边) with black; religious leaders gave praise of Lincoln instead of their prepared sermons(讲道). His funeral procession in Washington  was miles long. Lincoln's body was taken by train back to his former home in Springfield, Illinois, but in all the major cities through which the train passed, the coffin(棺材) was paraded through streets lined with sorrowful thousands. In the small towns through which the train passed, bells rang in honor of the dead President. Citizens lit torches along the railroad track to show their last respects.
6 The circumstances of his death set Lincoln apart from other American leaders. Had Lincoln lived, it might well be that his postwar policies would have brought criticisms upon him that would have tarnished his popularity. Instead, an assassin's bullet erased in the minds of American any faults he had and emphasized his virtues.

Exercise A
Use context clues as well as word part clues to guess the meanings of the underlined words In the following phrases and sentences. You may express your ideas in Chinese if you find it too difficult to express them in English.
  1. the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C.: __________________________ .
  2. the temples that ancient Greeks built in honor of their goods: _____________ .
  3. religious services: _________________________________ .
  4. the self-made person - the one who, with neither money nor family influence, fights his or her way to the top: ______________________ .
  5. he did hard manual labor through the day - splitting rails for fences, taking care of livestock, working on a riverboat or in a store: _________________ .
  6. He dared to do what he thought was right at a time when his beliefs were unpopular with may people: ______________________ .
  7. ... some of the southern states wanted t secede, or withdraw, from the United States: ______________ .
  8. He had infinite patience and tolerance for those who disagreed with him: ______ .
  9. generosity toward a defeated opponent: __________________ .
  10. The uncontrolled emotional reaction of the nation to his death was almost unbelievable ...: ________________ .
  11. ... his postwar policies would have brought criticisms upon him that would have tarnished his popularity:
  12. Instead, an assassin's bullet erased in the minds of Americans any faults he had and emphasized his virtues: _____________ .

Exercise  B
Quickly find in the introductory paragraph the thesis sentence (a statement that expresses the central idea of the whole passage) and the topic sentence for each of the remaining paragraphs:
  1. The central idea of the whole passage (the thesis sentence):
  2. The main idea sentence or topic sentence in Para. 2:
  3. The topic sentence in Para. 3:
  4. The topic sentence in Para. 4:
  5. The topic sentence in Para. 5:
  6. The main idea of the concluding paragraph:

Exercise  C
Translate into Chinese the underlined sentences in the passage.

Guided writing
PART I
Skill: Developing a Paragraph from the Topic Sentence
A topic sentence is one that introduces the central idea of a paragraph, and it is usually a general statement. It is a most common practice to begin a paragraph with the topic sentence and then develop and explain it by giving supporting details and specific examples.
Study the following example and see how this method is used:
Topic sentence      Jefferson was a good and tireless writer.
Evidence     1. fifty- volume works
             2. author of the Declaration of Independence
             3. effect of his writing

Paragraph
Jefferson was a good and tireless writer. His complete works, now being published for the first time, will fill more that fifty volumes. His talent as an author was soon discovered, and when the time came to write the Declaration of Independence at Philadelphia in 1776, the task of writing it was his. Millions have thrilled to his words: "We hold these truths to be self- evident, that all men are created equal ..."

PART II
Paragraph Writing
Directions: Write a brief summary of Thomas Jefferson's ideas. The subheadings in the text may serve as a framework.



REVISION EXERCISES 1

1 Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary.
crisis  resent  motion  proceed  self-evident
emerge  stick  feasibility  survive  owe
slightly  appoint hazard  host  existence
influence  spring  perform  hesitate  name
obtain  impulse  smash  widen  faint
reject  conflict crash  action  threaten
  1. Many young writers of that time were ____ by Hemingway, who they thought had revolutionized the technique of writing.
  2. His parents ___ him after his great grandfather, who was a Supreme Court Justice.
  3. Racial discrimination in America has led many people to conclude that that all men are created equal is a ___ lie.
  4. The plane ___ into a building when it was landing. Not a single passenger ___ the tragedy.
  5. The attention of the guests was drawn to the corner of the room where a heated argument had ___ up.
  6. The ___ did not sit down until he was sure that all the guests were comfortably seated in the room.
  7. Think twice before you take action. To act on _____ is not likely to do you any good.
  8. Unexpected weather conditions have made our task difficult to ____ .
  9. The southern states ___ to declare independence if Lincoln became President.
  10. The chairman of the committee _____ the idea as unfeasible.
  11. You should not _____ criticism. It will only do you good if you learn to take it wisely.
  12. George Washington ______ Thomas Jefferson to be his secretary of state.
  13. _____ interests drew the two friends apart.
  14. Is the elephant the biggest land animal in _____ today?
  15. _____ speak louder than words.
  16. She has gone out of her way to help me. At least I _____ her my thanks.
  17. I was brought up to think that a person should not ____ to speak the truth.
  18. Since he is unable to _____ financial support, going to college remains a dream for him.
  19. When dinner was over, mother ____ to me to come closer to her and told me that I could leave the guests now and _____ with my own business.
  20. There is a ____ smell of gas. Let's open the windows.
  21. The Yangtze River ______ as it flows further east.
  22. Many old people in America still have a vivid memory of their life during the economic(经济的) _____ of the 1930's.
  23. A research group has been set up to work on the ____ of producing a pollution-free automobile.
  24. We saw the ship _____ in the distance. We could even see its mast(桅杆), which ______ up about three meters at its head.
  25. No one is denying now that smoking is a _____ to health.
  26. Several windows were _____ to pieces during the storm.
  27. Don't worry. He is sonly ______ wounded.

2 Rewrite the following, sing the words or expressions given in brackets:
  Example:
  Thomas Jefferson steered his ship with confidence and hope, not with fear.
  (leave behind)
  Thomas Jefferson steered his ship with confidence and hope, leaving fear behind.
  1. The professor went to Europe. He told me to work on the project alone.
   (leave behind)
  2. The only witness(证人)to the murder died shortly afterwards.
   Who the murderer was has remained an unsolved mystery. (leave behind, as to)
  3. The boy slams the door against anyone he doesn't like. I hope he will quit that habit as he grows older. (outgrow)
  4. He is still young. He will not be so mad about pop singers as he grows older and more mature. (outgrow)
  5. You said we had an argument last night. I think discussion is a better word for it. (prefer)
  6. The college accepts students in spring as well as in fall. I want to go there in spring. (prefer)
  7. The Petersons are looking for someone to babysit for their daughter.
   They want a girl who is kind and patient. But most important of all she must be reliable. (above all)
  8. He was a writer and a literary (文学的) critic. But most important of all he was a statesman. (above all)

3 Replace the underlined parts in the following sentences with words or expressions you have learned from Units 1-3:
  1. The story has two parts.
  2. Virginia got its name from the Virgin Queen.
  3. I don't think the idea can be put into practice. One reason is that we don't have the necessary funds. Another reason is that we don't have the manpower needed to complete it.
  4. He is a man who always does things according to principles(原则).
  5. The captain's command was heard loud and clear in the silence of the night.
  6. He was wounded in the head two days ago. It will be a long time before he regains consciousness.
  7. The boy was sitting in a corner of the room. He ran toward the door as soon as he saw his mother coming in.
  8. Bad weather has caused a delay in the launching(发射) of the satellite.
  9. Social Darwinism(达尔文主义), as the term suggests, is developed from Darwin's theory of natural selection(自然选择).
  10. Ask the other s when they will be free for the conference. As for me, any time next week will do.
  11. The police dogs are specially trained to search and find burglary suspects.
  12. Something is wrong with the electric heater. It no longer emits heat.

4 Complete the following sentences by translating the Chinese into English:
  1. You screamed at me ._______________ (你得向我道歉 (apology)) (owe).
  2.  _______________ (这部小说的依据是) the life stories of some of my best friends.
  3. The moon does not emit heat. _______ (它也不发光)
  4. It is a good idea for those running for public office to ______(公布竟选基金的来源).
  5. ________________ (教授继续讲课) after he answered a student's question.
  6. As the plane was running low on fuel (燃料), ______(我们不得不飞向最近的机场.)
  7. The boy needs encouragement. __________ (过多的批评只能阻碍他的智力发展).
  8. __________(空气如此不适宜于呼吸) that some people think we will have to wear oxygen masks soon.
  9. ______________ (如果你不愿去剧院), why don't we just wit here and chat?
  10. ______ (人群中传出欢呼声) as people watched the debate between the president and his opponent in the conference hall.

5 Cloze
  put in the missing words:
some people argue that , since there are billions of stars in our universe, at least millions of them must have planets. And if there are (__1__) of planets, at least thousands of them will have (__2__). And of these life forms, at least some will (__3__) intelligence(智力). At some point of their te(__4__) development, these intelligent beings will think of communicating with (__5__) on other planets.
Some astronomers have (__6__) up a radio telescope at Harvard University. Dr. Paul Horowitz is using the (__7__) to scan (扫视) the skies for any signal (__8__) from other planets.
I have a plea for these gentlemen: please stop before it is too (__9__)!
For one (__10__), what if these beings that are in existence on other (__11__) do give us a message? What if the message (__12__) that these beings are far superior to us? Will we be (__13__) to survive the knowledge of our own unworthiness and inferiority(低劣)?
For another, what (__14__) these beings tune in and find us? Will they be friendly (__15__) us if they find that we can be worse (__16__) animals and that we are capable of (__17__) except polluting the atmosphere, killing(__18__) other as well as other species, and spoiling everything (__19__) our beautiful planet? Think what they will (__20__) to us, if they are unfriendly!
So, gentlemen, please stop looking for trouble!

6 Translate the following into English:
  1.小女孩慢慢长大后就不会再怕宠物(pet animals)了.
  2.我认为你不应立即照他的建议行事,想想是否还有更好的选择.
  3.埃费列特(Everett) 教授携妻子度假去了,留下三岁的女儿由保姆照顾.
  4.就这些山区村民而言,污染目前尚不是一个大威胁.
  5.太阳发出光和热,这是地球上人们的主要能源.
  6.对这次地夸大可能的成因科学家尚未能作出结论.
  7.你不必特地来看望我们,但任何时候你都将是个受欢迎的客人.
  8.美国宪法起初由七章(articles) 组成,迄今已增加了二十七条修正案(amendment).

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