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大学英语精读第1册 第8课 课文  

2009-01-22 10:40:24|  分类: 英语 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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UNIT   8

TEXT

A young boy faces the impossible task of trying to soften the blow of tragic news.

You Go Your Way, I'll Go Mine
The messenger got off his bicycle in front of the house of Mrs. Rosa Sandoval. He went to the door and knocked gently. He knew almost immediately that someone was inside the house. He could not hear anything, but he was sure the knock was bringing someone to the door and he was most eager to see who this person would be - this woman named Rosa Sandoval who was now to hear of murder in the world and to feel it in herself. The door was not a long time opening, but there was no hurry in the way it moved on its hinges. The movement of the door was as if, whoever she was, she had nothing in the world to fear. Then the door was open, and there she was.
    To Homer the Mexican woman was beautiful. He could see that she had been patient all her life, so that now, after years of it, her lips were set in a gentle and saintly smile. But like all people who never receive telegrams the appearance of a messenger at the front door is full of terrible implications. Homer knew that Mrs. Rosa Sandoval was shocked to see him. Her first word was the first word of all surprise. She said "Oh," as if instead of a messenger she had thought of opening the door to some one she had known a long time and would be pleased to sit down with. Before she spoke again she studied Homer's eyes and Homer knew that she knew the message was not a welcome one.
    "You have a telegram?" she said.
    It wasn't Homer's fault. His work was to deliver telegrams. Even so, it seemed to him that he was part of the whole mistake. He felt awkward and almost as if he alone were responsible for what had happened. At the same time he wanted to come right out and say, "I'm only a messenger, Mrs. Sandoval. I'm very sorry I must bring you a telegram like this, but it is only because it is my work to do so."
"Who is it for?" the Mexican woman said.
"Mrs. Rosa Sandoval, 1129 G Street," Homer said. He extended the telegram to the Mexican woman, but she would not touch it.
"Are you Mrs. Sandoval?" Homer said.
"Please," the woman said. "Please come in. I can not read English. I am Mexican. I read only La Prensa which comes from Mexico City." She paused a moment and looked at the boy standing awkwardly as near the door as he could be and still be inside the house.
"Please," she said, "what does the telegram say?"
"Mrs. Sandoval,' the messenger said, "the telegram says --"
But now the woman interrupted him. "But you must open the telegram and read it to me," she said. "You have not opened it."
"Yes, ma'am," Homer said as if he were speaking to a school teacher who had just corrected him.
He opened the telegram with nervous fingers. The Mexican woman stooped to pick up the torn envelope, and tried to smooth it out. As she did so she said, "Who sent the telegram - my son Juan Domingo?"
"No, ma'am." Homer said. "The telegram is from the War Department."
"War Department ?" the Mexican woman said.
"Mrs. Sandoval," Homer said swiftly, "your son is dead. Maybe it's a mistake. Everybody makes a mistake, Mrs. Sandoval. Maybe it wasn't your son. Maybe it was somebody lese. The telegram says it was Juan Domingo. But maybe the telegram is wrong."
The Mexican woman pretended not to hear.
"Oh, do not be afraid," she said. "Come inside. Come inside. I will bring you candy." She took the boy's arm and brought him to the table at the center of the room and there she made him sit.
"All boys like candy," she said. "I will bring you candy." She went into another room and soon returned with an old chocolate candy box. She opened the box at the table and n it Homer saw a strange kind of candy.
"Here," she said. "Eat this candy. All boys like candy."
Homer took a piece of the candy from the box, put it into his mouth, and tried to chew.
"You would not bring me a bad telegram," she said. "You are a good boy - like my little Juanito when he was a little boy. Eat another piece." And she made the messenger take another piece of the candy.
Homer sat chewing the dry candy while the Mexican woman talked. "It is our own candy," she said, "from cactus, I made it for my Juanito when he come home, but you eat it. You are my boy, too."
Now suddenly she began to sob, holding herself in as if weeping were a disgrace. Homer wanted to get up and run, but he knew he would stay. He even thought he might stay the rest of his life. He just didn't know what else to do to try to make the woman less unhappy, and if she had asked him to take the place of her son, he would not have been able to refuse, because he would not have known how. He got to his feet, as if by standing he meant to begin correcting what could not be corrected and then he knew the foolishness of this intention and became more awkward than every. In his heart he was saying over and over again, "What can I do? What the hell can I do? I'm only the messenger."


爱莫能助

送电报的在罗莎·桑多瓦尔太太的房子前面下了自行车。他走到门前,轻轻敲了敲门。他几乎立即就觉察到房子里面有人。他听不到什么动静,但他肯定敲门声正在把一个人召唤到门口来,他很急切地想看看来者是什么人——这个就要听到人世间的残杀并将在内心感受到其痛苦的名叫罗莎·桑多瓦尔的妇人。不一会儿,门开了,但门在铰链上转动时慢慢悠悠,不慌不忙,门的转运似乎表明,不管来开门的是什么人,她在世界上没有什么可以怕的事情。接着门全部打开了,而她就站在那儿。

在霍默看来,这位墨西哥妇人是很美的。他看得出,她一生都很有耐心,经过多年的忍耐以后,现在她的嘴边总挂着一丝温柔、圣洁的微笑。但是正像所有从未收到过电报的人一样,送电报的人出现在前门,她便预感到凶多吉少。霍默知道,罗莎·桑多瓦尔太太看到他大吃了一惊。她说的第一个字就是人们在极度惊恐时首先出口的那个字。她“哦”了一声,仿佛她原以为开门迎接的不该是一个送电报的,而应该是她相识已久并愿与之促膝交谈的某个人。在她再次开口之前,她仔细观察了霍默的眼神。霍默知道,她已经明白,这份电报是份不受欢迎的电报。

“有电报?”她问。

这不是霍默的过错。他的工作就是送电报。即使这样,他还是觉得自己似乎也是整个错误的一部分。他感到很尴尬,仿佛唯独他要对发生的一切负责。同时,他想直截了当地说:“我只是个送电报的,桑多瓦尔太太。我很抱歉一定要把这样一份电报给你送来,但这只是因为我的工作就是送电报。”

“谁的电报?”墨西哥妇人问。

“G街1129号罗莎·桑多瓦尔太太的。”霍默说。他把电报递给墨西哥妇人,可她不肯接。

“您是桑多瓦尔太太吗?”霍默问。

“请进,”妇人说。“请进来。我不懂英文。我是墨西哥人。我只看从墨西哥城来的《新闻报》。她停了一会儿,看了看那个男孩,只见他尽量靠近门口站,但仍让自己立在房内,样子很尴尬。

“请问,”她说,“电报上说些什么?”

“桑多瓦尔太太,”送电报的说。“电报上说——”

但这时妇人打断了他的话。“但是你得拆开电报,念给我听,”她说。“你还没有拆开呢。”

“是的,太太,”霍默说。好像他是在对一位刚刚纠正了他的错误的老师讲话一样。

他用颤抖的手指拆开电报。墨西哥妇人弯腰抢起撕破的信封,想把它弄平整。她一边弄一边说,“是谁发来的电报——是我儿子胡安·多明戈吗?”

“不是,太太,”霍默说。“电报是陆军部发来的。”

“陆军部?”墨西哥妇人说。

“桑多瓦尔太太,”霍默很快地说,“您的儿子死了。这也许是弄错了。谁都会出差错的,桑多瓦尔太太。也许不是您的儿子。也许是另一个人,电报上说是胡安·多明戈,不过也许是电报弄上错了。

墨西哥妇人假装没听见。

“哦,不要怕,”她说。“到里边来。到里边来。我去给你拿糖。”她拉着男孩的胳膊,把他带到屋子中间的桌子旁边,让他坐下。

“男孩子都喜欢糖,”她说。“我去给你拿糖。”她走进另外一间屋子,很快就拿着一个旧的巧克力糖盒子回来了。她在桌子上打开糖盒子,霍默看见里面有一种奇怪的糖。

“喏,”她说,“吃吃这种糖。男孩子都喜欢吃糖。”

霍默从盒子里拿了一块,放进嘴里,使劲咀嚼起来。

“你不会给我送来不吉利的电报的,”她说。“你是个好孩子——就像我的小胡安尼特小时候那样。再吃一块。”她让送电报的又拿了一块糖。

霍默坐在那儿一边嚼着干糖,一边听着墨西哥妇人讲话。“这是我们自己做的糖,”她说。“用仙人球做的。我做这些糖果等我的胡安尼特回家来吃的,不过你吃吧,你也是我的孩子。”

这时她突然抽噎起来,同时又尽量克制着自己,仿佛哭泣是件丢脸的事。霍默想起来跑掉,但他知道他会留下的。他甚至想到自己也许会一辈子留下不走了。他简直不知道还有什么别的办法可以减轻这位妇人的痛苦。如果她当时要求他代替他的儿子,他也许没法拒绝,因为他不知道该怎样拒绝。他站了起来,好像以此来表明他准备去挽回那无法挽回的事似的。接着他意识到自己的打算愚蠢可笑,变得更加尴尬了。他在心里一遍又一遍地说着:“我有什么办法?我能有什么办法呢?我只不过是个送电报的呀。”



NEW words
Soften           (cause to) become soft(er) or gentle (使)软化;(使)温和
Tragic           very sad, unfortunate; of or related to tragedy   悲惨的,悲剧的
Messenger        a person employed to deliver telegrams, letters or parcels   送信人;电报投递员
Gently          softly      轻轻地
Immediately     at once
Immediate
Eager          marked by strong interest or impatient desire   热切的,渴望的
Hinge          饺链
Whoever       no matter who    无论谁,不管谁
Saintly       like a saint; very holy   像圣徒一样的;圣洁的
Implication    含义
imply
shock        cause unpleasant or angry surprise to (sb.) 使(某人)震惊
deliver      take (sth.) to the place where it must go  交付,递送
awkward      uncomfortable      尴尬的
responsible    having done or been the cause of esp. sth. bad  应(负责的)
Mexican       墨西哥人;墨西哥(人)的
Extend       hold out   伸出
Pause        stop for a short time    暂停,中止
Interrupt    stop (sb. speaking) by breaking in 打断(某人讲话)
Nervous        神经质的,紧张的
Ma'am         madam (used in direct address) 夫人,太太,小姐
Smooth       make smooth or smoother         把...弄平
Department      部门,系
Swiftly       rapidly, quickly       快速地;敏捷地
Swift
Chocolate     巧克力(糖)
Chew          crush (food) with the teeth      咀嚼
Cactus        仙人掌
Or cactuses
Sob         cry with short, quick breaths       啜泣;鸣咽
Disgrace     shame    耻辱;丢脸的人(或事)
Unhappy      not happy
Hell          地狱

PHRASES EXPRESSIONS
Hear of        have knowledge of or receive information about   听到,听说
Be responsible for     be the cause of     应对 ... 负责的
Come out (with)    speak out    大声地说,清楚地说
Smooth out     make smooth (er)
Hold oneself in     control one's feelings
Take the place of         act or be used instead of, replace   代替,取代
Get to one's feet     stand up
Over and over again        very often, repeatedly        反复地,再三地

PROPER NAMES
Rosa Sandoval                        罗莎.桑多瓦称
Homer                                霍默
Mexico City                          墨西哥城(墨西哥首都)
Juan Domingo                         胡安.多明哥
The War Department                   (美国)陆军部(旧称)
Juanito                              胡安尼特(Juan 的呢称)


Notes
1 This text is taken from The Human Comedy, a novel written by William Saroyan in 1943 during World War II.
2 William Saroyan (1908-1981): American author of Armenian (亚美尼亚的)parents. He wrote short stories and plays as well as novels.
3 The door was not a long time opening: It was not a long time before the door opened.
4 La Prensa <<新闻报>>: a Spanish newspaper published in Mexico City
5 She paused a moment and looked at the boy standing awkwardly as near the door as he could be and still be inside the house.
  This could be paraphrased as: She paused a moment and looked at the boy standing awkwardly as near the door as he could be while still remaining inside the house.
6 "... I made it for my Juanito when he come home, but you eat it ...":
  The sentence is obviously ungrammatical as it is uttered(说) by a Mexican woman who doesn't speak good English. The correct sentence should be "... when he comes home..."
7 "What the hell can I do?"
  "The hell" is often used with the interrogative words who, what, when, where, why, and how to express surprise, or other emotions. Other examples:
  "What the hell have you been doing?"
  "Why the hell didn't you tell me earlier?"


STUDY   PRACTICE

Words to Drill
Awkward         chew            deliver         department          disgrace
Eager          extend          immediately      implication         interrupt
Nervous        pause           responsible      shock               smooth
Swiftly        tragic          unhappy          whoever

Reading Aloud and Memorizing
1 Read the following paragraph until you learn it by heart, paying attention to sense groups and the sentence stress:
`Now `suddenly she be `gan to `sob, `holding her `self `in as if `weeping were a dis `grace. `Homer `wanted to `get `up and `tun, but he `knew he would `stay. He `even `thought he might `stay the `rest of his `life. He `just `didn't know `what `else to `do to `try to `make the `woman `less un `happy, and if she had `asked him to `take the `place of her `som, he would `not have heen `able to re `fuse, because he would `not have `known `how. He `got to his `feel, as if by `standing he `meant to be `gin cor `recting `what could `not be cor `rected and `then he `know the `foolishness of this in `tention and be `came `more `awkward than `ever. In his `heart he was `saying `over and `over a `gain. "`What can I `do? `What the `hell can `I do ? I'm `only the `messenger."
2 Read the following poem:
If I can `stop `one `heart from `breaking,
I shall `not `live in `vain;
If I can `ease `one `life the `aching,
Or `help `one `fainting `robin
Unto his `nest a `gain,
I shall `not `live in `vain.
                 --Emily Dickinson(1830-1886)

假如我能使一颗心免于破碎,
我便没有白活一场,
假如我能消除一个人的痛苦,
或者平息一个人的悲伤,
或者帮膈一只昏迷的知更鸟
重新回到它的巢中,
我便没有虚度此生。
--埃米莉.迪更生

Comprehension of the Text
3 Choose the best answer for each of the following:
  1. When Homer knocked at the door to Mrs. Rosa Sandoval's house
  a .he knew that no one was at home.
  b. he was eager to see who Mrs. Sandoval was.
  c. he didn't know anything about the contents of the telegram.
  d. he lost his sense of hearing momentarily.
  2. Homer felt _________  about delivering the telegram to Mrs. Sandoval.
  a. awkward                 b. blameless
  c. angry                   d. happy
  3. Mrs. Sandoval
  a. didn't have any idea what was in the telegram.
  B. knew that the message was not a welcome one.
  c. was expecting good news in the telegram.
  d. knew that the telegram was from his son.
  4. Before he opened the telegram, Homer
  a. didn't know what news was in it.
  b. wondered what news was in it.
  c. knew what news was in it.
  d. didn't care what news was in it.
  5. Homer read the telegram to Mrs. Sandoval because
  a. he wanted to.
  b. she couldn't read English.
  c. she was crying and couldn't read it.
  d. it was his duty as a messenger to do so.
  6. Mrs. Sandoval was ____  Homer because of the news in the telegram.
  a. angry with            b. sorry for
  c. afraid of             d. doubtful about
  7. Homer knew he would stay with Mrs. Sandoval for a short time because
  a. it was his duty to do so.        B. she was crying.
  c. he wanted to be her son.         d. he wanted to make her less unhappy.
  8. Mrs. Sandoval pretended not to hear when Homer read her the telegram. This was because
  a. when the truth is too painful, people tend to disbelieve it.
  b. her mind simply rejected (拒绝) it as impossible.
  c. she wanted to give Homer a piece of her own candy first
  d. she wanted Homer to read the telegram once again.
4 Questions for discussion:
1. After hearing the news of her son's death, why does Mrs. Sandoval tell Homer to come inside and make him eat some candy?
2. What do you think of the boy Homer?
3. What do you think of the Mexican woman?
4. What do you think the title of this story means?
Vocabulary
5 Find in Column B descriptions that fit the words or expressions in Column A:
           A                                     B
1. immediately                        a. hold out to others
2. implication                        b. rise
3. deliver                            c. say directly
4. awkward                            d. loss of honor or respect
5. come right out and say             e. not knowing what to do
6. extend                             f. right away
7. interrupt                          g. control one's feelings
8. hold oneself in                    h. take (letters, parcels, etc.) to houses
9. disgrace                           i. Something suggested but not expressed
10.get to one's feet                  j. break the flow of speech or action
6 Fill in the blanks with the given words or expressions in their proper forms:
1. hear/hear of
  (1)Would you please speak louder? The students sitting at the back can't ___ you.
  (2)People in that mountainous district have not even _____ TV sets or recorders(录音机).
  (3)We jumped with joy when we _______ their success.
  (4)I seldom ________ him complain.
2. mistake /fault
  (1)Whose _______ is it that you failed in the exam?
  (2)She is the brightest student I have ever taught. There is no _____ about it.
  (3)Cathy was in such a hurry that she took her sister's bag by _____.
  (4)Laziness is his only ______.
7 Fill in the blanks with the words given below:
whoever             whatever             whichever
wherever            whenever             however
1. If we work with a will, we can overcome any difficulty, _______ great it is.
2. ______ asks to see the manager, tell him to wait until ten.
3. Henry will lend me _______ dictionaries I need.
4. The bandits (土匪) found themselves surrounded on all sides. _______ way they turned, they couldn't escape.
5. Come and see me _____ you want to.
6. ________ the criminal (罪犯) may hide, the police will seek him out.
7. ________ spits (吐痰) in a public place will be fined (罚款).
8. As university graduates, we are ready to go _____ we are needed most.
9. Take _____ of the three paintings you like best.
10. We will go on with the project _____ obstacles (障碍) we may meet.
11. _______ Father says "Not bad", he really means "Very good".
12. _______ hard I tried, I still couldn't unlock the door.
8 Fill in the blanks with the words or expressions given below. Change the form where necessary.
Hold oneself in           awkward         over and over again         chew
Take the place of         come out        get to one's feet           eager
Be responsible for        deliver         immediately                 extend
Swiftly                   tragic
1.Electric trains have ______ steam locomotives (机车) in Britain.
2.When I saw a car coming head-on towards me, I ______ turned my car to the side of the road and avoided an accident.]
3.Romeo and Juliet is a ______ story of love in medieval (中世纪的) Europe.
4.He asked me such an ______ question that I did not know what to reply.
5.Death often comes _______ and without warning in time of war.
6.I have pointed out those grammatical mistakes to him _____, but he still keeps making them.
7.Who do you think _______ the failure of the experiment?
8.Joe cordially (热诚地) ________ his hand to Sam but the latter pretended not to see it.
9.The captain was very angry but he managed to _____.
10.He ______ and tried to say something to comfort the lady before leaving.
11.The sales manager said that the goods would _____ to our door free of charge (免费)
12.That dictionary is of great use. All the students of our department are ______ to get a copy of it.
13.He bit off (咬下) more than he could ______ when he agreed to do it all by himself.
14.The boy's father ordered him to _____ with the truth.
9 Complete the following sentences, using the words in brackets:
1. Now many households in this city use electric stoves (炉子) instead of gas rings (煤气灶).
  Electric stoves ... (take the place of)
2. Divorce has become more acceptable now; in earlier times, however, people took it as a shame to a family.
  In earlier times, divorce ... (disgrace)
3. Catching sight of a policeman walking toward him, the thief grew very fearful.
  The sight of a policeman ... (nervous)
4. The way the law was broken caused angry surprise among all the women in our neighborhood.
  All the women in our neighborhood ... (shock)
5. His impatience to get started was written on his face.
  The expression on his face showed that (extremely eager)
6. She hates being disturbed, because she is studying for an exam tomorrow.
  She is studying for an exam tomorrow, so you'd better ... (interrupt)

Word Building
10 You already know that the suffix -ly can be added to adjectives to form adverbs, but it can also be added to nouns to form adjectives, with the meaning "like in manner, nature, or appearance", e.g.
saint +- ly             -> saintly: like a saint; very holy
friend +- ly            -> friendly: of a friend; kind
  Now form adjectives by adding -ly to the nouns listed below and then use them in the following sentences.
Beast              brother               father
Man                scholar(学者)         coward
1. Jack was _____ enough not to have been frightened by the difficulties.
2. To run away at the first sign of danger is a _____ action.
3. The older boy gave the newcomer some ______ advice.
4. There's always a ________ smile on Dr. Adams' face.
5. Cathy wears a pair of glasses, which gives her a _____ look.
6. The _____ behavior of that gang (那一帮人)frightened Little Tom into crying.
11 Study the following words. Then use them correctly in the sentences below:
verbs            nouns                  adjectives               adverbs
                                        participles
imply          implication             implied
surprise       surprise                surprising              surprisingly
                                       surprised
respond       response                 responsible
responsibility          irresponsible
correct       correctness             correct                correctly
                                      incorrect              incorrectly
smooth       smoothness               smooth                 smoothly
die          death                    dead                   deadly
                                      deadly
1 imply, implication, implied
  (1)She did not actually say that our plan was Utopian (空想的), but that was the ________.
  (2)Are you _______ that I am a liar?
  (3)Can you figure out the _______ meaning of his statement?
  (4)Can you figure out the _______ that he didn't believe me.
2 surprise(u.), surprise(n.) surprising, surprised, surprisingly
  (1)I was ______ to hear that Tom had failed his exam.
  (2)Aunt Sophia paid us a _______ visit last Sunday.
  (3)______, our team lost for the first time in ten years.
  (4)The news ______ all of us.
  (5)It is not _____ that Jack got fired - he was always daydreaming at work.
  (6)A look of _____ came into his eyes as he read the telegram.
3 respond, response, responsibility, responsible, irresponsible
  (1)The suggestions we put forward at the meeting met with little ______.
  (2)Mary ____ to the news by weeping all day.
  (3)It is _____ of her to leave the children alone in the house.
  (4)Who is ______ for the accident?
  (5)Mr. Black was fully aware that his new post as general manager was a position of great ______.
  (6)Every adult (except a mad person) is ______ for his own actions.
4 correct(u.) correctness, correct(a.) incorrect, correctly
  (1)_______ translation of a single word could lead to misunderstanding.
  (2)The teacher was busy ______ our exercise books when we called at his house.
  (3)You are ______ in thinking that my brother is a little bossy.
  (4)Facts have proved the ______ of this theory.
  (5)I kept practicing until I was able to pronounce these words ______ .
  (6)He spent a lot of time _______ my pronunciation.
5 smooth(u.) smoothness, smooth(a.) smoothly
  (1)The plane landed _______ .
  (2)Mother is ______ the sheets so that the bed may be more comfortable.
  (3)His path in life had been quite _____ until he lost his job this spring.
  (4)Many Western visitors are impressed by the _____ of Chinese silk and satin(缎子).
  (5)Before you paint(油漆) the board you have to ______ it with sandpaper.
6 die, death, dead, deadly(a.), deadly(ad.)
(1)One winter morning the old beggar was found lying ______ in the snow.
(2)peace-loving people all over the world want these _____ weapons (开) done away w3ith(废除)
(4)He is ______ serious about the matter.
(5)she ____ for the people. Her ____ is weightier than Mount Tai(泰山).
(6)when the ambulance(救护车)reached the hospital, the wounded soldier was already _____.

Structure
12 1 Rewrite the following sentences after the model:
  Model: There was no hurry in how the door moved on its hinges.
         There was no hurry in the way the door moved on its hinges.
  (1)She was greatly shocked by how things were done in that country.
  (2)That was how minority nationalities(少数民族) were treated in old China.
 (3)I hate the manner in which she stares at me.
 (4)The manner in which he talked reminded(使想起) us of his grandfather.
  2 complete the following sentences, using "so that":
  (1)they hurried me, (结果我在离开前忘了关电视机)
  (2)George often told lies, (结果即使在他说真话时也没有人相信他了)
  (3)Everybody lent a hand, (因此工作提前完成了)
 (4)Sam is good at planning his time, (所以他既有足够的时间工作,也有足够的时间玩耍)

Cloze
13 Fill in the missing words.
       (A)
when the boy arrived at Mrs. Rosa Sandoval's home to d____(1) the telegram with the t____(2) news, he felt n_____(3) and a_____(4). The telegram, he knew, carried the news of her son's death; and, as soon as she opened the door, she seemed to sense I_____(5) that something was wrong. The boy e____(6) the telegram to her and was e_____(7) to get away, but she told him that she could not read English and would need him to read it to her. As he c_____ o_____(8) with the news, he felt as though he were personally r______(9) for the terrible event. When Mrs. Sandoval could no longer h_____(10) herself I____(11) and began to cry, the boy g____ t_____ h_____ f_____(12) and wanted to go, but he found himself unable to leave her alone with her tears.
(B)
A big battle was going on during the First World War. Guns _____(1) firing, and shells (炮弹) and bullets (子弹) were flying about _____(2). After an hour of this, one _____(3) the soldiers decided that the fighting _____(4) getting too dangerous for him, so he _____(5) the front line and began to ____(6) away from the battle. After he had walked for ____(7) hour, he saw an officer coming _____(8) him. The officer stopped him and said, "_____(9) are you going?"
"I'm trying to get as _____(10) away as possible from the ____(11) that's going on behind us, sir," the soldier answered.
"Do you know _____(12) I am?" the officer said to him _____(13). "I'm your commanding officer."
The soldier was very surprised _____(14) he heard this and said, "My God, I didn't _____(15) that I was so far back already!"

Translation
14 Translate the following sentences into English:
  1.她变腰捡起手帕,在桌子上把它弄平。
  2.他那句话的含意是他想在政府部门找个工作。
  3.她停顿了一会儿,用一块小手帕擦了擦了嘴,然后又继续给我们讲衬衫厂里发生的事情。
  4.亚当斯先生发现他13岁的儿子正从他的皮夹子里偷钱时大为震惊。
  5.“请不要打断我,‘亚当斯先生对妻子说:“我正在和汤姆谈他刚才做的事情。”
  6.我怎么能为他讲的话负责呢?
  7.小男孩急于想减轻那位妇人的痛苦,但不知道该怎么办
  8.他努力控制住自己的感情,假装没有听见那个令人悲痛的消息。

READING ACTTVTTY
In the previous two units, you were given practice in reading for the main idea. Generally, in a one-paragraph selection you read all the sentences to find the main idea, while in a longer passage you put together the main ideas of the various paragraphs to determine the overall main idea.
To understand the main idea thoroughly, however, you must recognize the important facts or details which help develop or support it. These facts and details give you a deeper understanding of the main idea. They may prove a point, show a relationship between ideas, or serve as examples to help you understand the main idea more fully.


Skill: Reading Comprehension Skill II
        --Recognizing Important Facts or Details

    Here are some ways to help you recognize important facts or details:
1Read for the main idea. If you have identified(认出) the main idea, you can more easily recognize the important facts that support it.
2keep it in mind that not all facts or details are equally important. Look only for the facts related to the main idea.
3To check on your understanding of the material you have read, review the facts or details which you have decided are the most important. Then consider if they support what you have identified as the main idea. If adding up the facts or details does not lead logically to the main idea, you have failed either to identify the main idea or to recognize the important supporting de tails.

Exercise       A
Read the following paragraph and answer the questions after it.
It was the use of the telescope(望远镜) of course, that opened the modern age of astronomy(天文学) and made possible the growth (发展) of all our current theories (理论). Johannes Kepler and Tycho Brahe tried to answer some questions about the solar system (太阳系),but it was Galileo who made the first use of the telescope to observe the heavens close up. Born in 1564 , Galileo added greatly to our knowledge of the stars before he died in 1642, By means of his telescope he discovered moons in orbit(轨道)around Jupiter (木星).Although he saw only four, scientists after him discovered eight more moons. Galileo also discovered that the planet(行星) Venus (金星) did not always appear the same size. It was his wise use of the telescope that helped him understand this important fact: that the sun, and not the earth, is the center of the planets.
1.What is the main idea of this paragraph?
2.in this paragraph we may find the following facts or details, of which some are important and some are not very important. Please circle those you think important.
a. Kepler and Brahe answered questions about the solar system.
b. Galileo was born in 1564 and died in 1642.
c.  He discovered moons around Jupiter.
  d. Galileo observed the planet Venus.
  e. He came to understand that the earth is not the center of the stars' system.
3How did Galileo learn about the stars?
4How many moons does Jupiter have?
5Galileo's major contribution to our knowledge of the planets was
a. his invention (发明) of the telescope.
b. his study of Brahe and Kepler.
c. his observations about Jupiter and Venus.
d. his understanding that planets go round the sun.
Exercise   B
The following is a short story written about a black woman and a black boy. Read it and answer the questions that follow.
Words to Know
Purse          钱包           rear            后部
Strap          带子           dash           猛冲,飞奔
Balance        平衡           frown          皱眉
Unexpected     意外的        screen          屏幕;屏风,帘
Loose          松的,不加约束的      gas        煤气,气体
Bother        打扰,麻烦     refrigerator    电冰箱


Thank You, M'am
She was a large woman, walking alone, carrying a large purse about eleven l'clock at night. A boy ran up behind her and tried to take her purse. The strap broke, and the boy lost his balance under the unexpected weight. He fell on his back. (1) The woman turned around and kicked him, reached down, picked the boy up by his shirt, and shook him until his teeth rattled (发出格格声). Then she said, "Pick up my pocketbook, boy ,and give it here."
She still held him tightly. But she bent down far enough so that be could pick up her purse. Then she said, "Now aren't you ashamed of yourself?"
"Yes, m'am,' the boy said weakly.
"If I turn you loose, will you run?" asked the woman.
"Yes, m'am."
"Then I won't. Your face is dirth. Don't you have anyone at home to tell you to wash your face?" She asked.
"No. m'am."
"It will get washed tonight," she said, starting up the street, dragging the frightened boy behind her.
The woman said, "You ought to be my son, I'd reach you right from wrong. Right now I will at least see that you wash your face. Hungry?"
"No, m'am, Just turn me loose."
"Was I bothering you when I turned that corner?" asked the woman.
"No, m'am."
"But you put yourself in contact with me. That contact is not going to end fast. Sir, you'll remember Mrs. Luella Bates Washington Jones."
The boy's face became sweaty, and he began to struggle, Mrs. Jones stopped, jerked(猛拉) him around in front of her, put a half-nelson (扼颈) about his neck and continued to drag him up street. At her door she dragged the boy inside, down a hall and into a large kitchenette-furnished room at the rear of the house. She turned on the light and left the door open.
She said, "What's your name?"
"Roger,"
"Then, Roger, you go to that sink (洗涤槽) and wash your face," said the woman as she turned him loose at last. Roger looked at the door -at the woman -at the door -and went to the sink.
"Are you going to take me to jail?" asked the boy, bending over the sink.
"Not with that face. I wouldn't take you anywhere," said the woman. "Here I am trying to get home to eat, and you try to take my pocketbook. Maybe you haven't had your supper either, Have you?"
"There's nobody home at my house," said the boy.
"Then we'll eat," said the woman. (2)"I believe you're hungry - or you're been hungry - to try to steal my pocketbook."
"I sant a pair of blue suede(. sweid /绒皮面) shoes," said the boy.
"Well, you didn't have to steal," said Mrs. Jones. "You could have asked me."
"M'am?" The boy looked at her. There was a long silence. The door was open. He would dash down the hall.
The woman was sitting on the bed. After a while she said, "I was young once and I wanted things I couldn't get." There was another long pause. The boy's mouth opened and he frowned. (3)"You thought I was going to say, but I didn't steal people's pocketbooks. Well, I wasn't going to say that." Pause, Silence. "I've done things too, which I would not tell you, son, Everybody's got something in common. Sit down while I fix us something to eat. You might run that comb through your hair so you look nice."
In another corner of the room behind a screen was a gas ring and refrigerator. Mrs. Jones got up and went behind the screen. She didn't watch the boy, nor did she watch her purse, which she had left behind her on the bed. (4) But the boy took care to sit where she could easily see him out of the corner of her eye if she wanted to.
Later, when they had finished eating, she said, "Take this ten dollars and buy yourself some blue suede shoes. I need to rest now, but from now on I hope you behave yourself."
She led the way to the front door and opened it. "Good night, Behave yourself, boy," she said.
(5)The boy wanted to say something other than "Thank you, m'am but he couldn't even say that, although his lips moved as he looked up at the large woman in the doorway. Then she shut the door."           
                                   ----Langston Hughes

1. Which of the following statements is NOT true?
a. This story took place late at night.
b. A boy tried to steal a large purse from a big strong woman.
c. The big woman knocked the boy down and kicked him.
d. The woman told the boy to pick up the purse for her.
2. Rearrange the following sentences according to the sequence(顺序) of action in the story.
a. Roger washed his face.
b. Mrs. Jones dragged Roger up the street.
c. Mrs. Jones asked Roger his name.
d. Mrs. Jones took Roger to her room.
3. Mrs. Jones refused to let go of the boy because.
a. she wanted to get his face washed.
b. she wanted to punish him for trying to take her purse.
c. she wanted to get him to mend his ways(改过自新)
d. she intended to take him to jail, though she changed her mind later.
4. When the boy asked Mrs. Jones if she would send him to jail,
a. she told him plainly that she would not.
b. she said she would, unless he got his face washed.
c. she said she would, but not until he got his face washed.
d. she said she would not, but he had to get his face washed.
5. Roger tried to steal Mrs. Jones' purse because
a. he wanted to buy some shoes.
b. he was an experienced criminal.
c. his parents needed some money badly.
d. he wanted to buy some food.
6. Mrs. Jones told the boy that when she was young
a. she had never stolen anything.
b. she had been in jail.
c. she had done something bad.
d. she had things common to all.
7. Mrs. Jones left her purse on the bed when she went to cook, because
a. she simply forgot all about it.
b. she was trying to punish Roger.
c. she was trying to trap(使中圈套) Roger.
d. she wanted Roger to know she trusted him.
8. Roger chose to sit where she could easily see him.
a. because he was afraid to make her angry.
b. because he did not want to be mistrusted.
c. so that she could concentrate on her cooking.
d. for no reason at all.
9. When they finished eating,
a. Mrs. Jones gave the boy some money to buy shoes.
b. Mrs. Jones told the boy not to steal again.
c. Mrs. Jones led the boy to the front door and said good-bye to him.
d. All of the above.
10. Roger
a. wanted to say anything but "Thanks" to Mrs. Jones.
b. wanted to say more than "Thanks" to Mrs. Jones.
c. just left after saying "Thank you, m'am."
d. moved his lips and murmured his "Thank" to Mrs. Jones.
11. Mrs. Jones Was
a. rough and unkind.
b. seemingly rough and unkind.
c. a woman with a heart of gold.
d. both b and c.

Exercise C
Translate into Chinese the underlined sentences in the passage.


GUIDED  WRITING
Contraction: expressing it more briefly
Compare the following pairs of sentences:
--Now suddenly she began to cry with short, quick breaths.
--Now suddenly she began to sob.
--The Mexican woman bent her body forward and downward to pick up the torn envelope, and tried to smooth it out.
--The Mexican woman stooped to pick up the torn envelope, and tried to smooth it out.
  In the second sentence of each pair, a single direct word is used to replace. Several words in the first. This is a way to make your sentences more brief(简洁的).
    Now rewrite the following sentences, replacing the italicized part with one proper word from the list below:

Fired                           burn                boring
Eatable                         hired               grow
Imports(进口商品)               permanent           miss
Personally(就本人而言)          unbelievable        millionaire(百万富翁)
1.Most plants increase in size more quickly in warmer areas.
2.Jim was dismissed from his job for being absent-minded while working.
3.I doubt whether these fish are really fit to be eaten.
4.We tried our best with a magnifying glass(放大镜) but the dry grass simply would not catch fire.
5.Exports(出口商品) provide the funds to pay for goods coming into the country.
6.The traveler entertained his hosts with stories, some of which were really more than could be believed.
7.She was not given the position because she wasn't qualified(合格的)
8.Speaking for myself, I don't approve of (赞成) the idea.
9.The effect(影响) of an unhappy childhood on a man's character is not always lasting for a very long time.
10.The lecture was so uninteresting and tiresome that we couldn't help yawning (打呵欠).
11.Henry Adams became a person who had a million pounds overnight(一下子) after coming into possession (占有) of the one- million- pound bank note.
12.The house is at the next corner, you can't fail to find it.

SUPPLEMENTARY READING IN POPULAR SCIENCE
A    New Powerful Light Microscope
Electron microscopes enable you to look at the genes of plants and animals. But now we have a new instrument that performs the same function without doing harm to the organism under observation.
Words to Know
Microscope     显微镜                          interact          相互作用
Gene           基因                            interaction
Instrument     仪器                            reveal            展现,显示
Organism       有机物                          atom              原子
Laser          激光                            stream            流,(一)般
Beam           光束                            identify          识别
Beneath        在...下面                       cell              细胞
Specimen       样本,标本                      scan              扫描;细看
Per            每                              data              数据

Anew light microscope developed by a team of scientists at IBM can "see" objects even smaller than genes, says Kumar Wicramasinghe, the team's leader.
The new microscope is about 500 times more powerful than ordinary light microscopes like the ones you use at school. It works by shooting a laser beam(a narrow, focused beam of light) onto a "needle tip."
The needle moves up and down beneath the specimen about 200,00 times per second. Another instrument measures how the laser light interacts with the light reflected by the sample. Recordings of these interactions can reveal objects as small as the needle tip - just five atoms across.
That may not sound so great if you know that some electron microscopes-which use a stream of elections instead of light-allow scientists to see objects the size of single atoms. But the images from the new microscope are more useful, Wickramasinghe says. One reason is that they are in color-which allows scientists to easily identify what they are seeing. Also, since light is not harmful, scientists can use the new microscope to observe living things - like the genes inside a living cell.
In the future, scientists might also use the new microscope to quickly scan tiny bits of data off penny -size compact disks(光盘).
                                 (adapted from Science World)
Answer the following questions:
1. What is the author's purpose in writing this article?
2. I n what way is a light microscope different from an electron microscope?
3. What are the advantages of a light microscope over an electron microscope?
4. According to this passage, which is bigger, a gene or an atom?
5. What possible use can the light microscope be put to in the future?



REVISION EXERCISES 2
WORD BUILDING
Give as many different forms of the following words as you can by adding prefixes and/or suffixes, and then use the proper new forms in the sentences below:
Efficient             consult            expensive            find
Suspect               practice           respond              patient
Inspect               imply              do                   nervous
Sincere               evident            bore                 hope
1His _____ turned out to be all wrong.
2He was fired because his boss thought he was very _______.
3Pork(猪肉) in our province used to be very ______.
4Professor Freedman, a well -known China hand in the U.S., acts as a ______ for several corporations doing business with China.
5Upon _____, it was found that the rooms in the new building were smaller than were originally designed.
6To redesign the whole project would be _____. We do not have time to do that.
7His lecture is ________. I can see that because the students are getting increasingly _____.
8Does he really mean what he says? I have doubts about his ______.
9He said he had done nothing wrong. But the _____ was against him.
10If one says, "I'd rather not do business with that man," the _____ is that the man in question is dishonest.
11The ____ of the research group proved once again that Einstein was right.
12He has lung cancer and the doctors have given him up as a ______ case.
13His legs shook _____ when he walked to the platform(讲台) to speak before the huge crowd.
14To do the job well, a sense of _____ is more important than anything else.
15What has been done can not be ______.


NOCABULARY
Fill in the blanks with words or phrases you have learned from the texts:
1.The professor says that an article must be short to be interesting, but it mustn't be so short as not to ______ all the necessary parts of the topic.
2.After eight long years, we _____ defeated the Japanese invaders (侵略者)〉
3.All of those who saw me do t he job were _____ .They could not have believed it possible if they had not seen it with their own eyes.
4.He shouted to me in a burst of anger:" Mind your own business! How can you be so _____ about what is right for me to  do?"
5.Tom is a well _____ person. He keeps his room meat, with everything in its ____.
6.The doctor said that the medicine would not cure his illness. It would only ____ the pain.
7.The pudding was not made to my _____. It was too heavy.
8.We were _____ ______ by the traffic jam (堵塞) for nearly an hour. By the time we arrived the meeting was almost over.
9.Some people are learning the laws not just to abide by (遵守) them but also to take _____ of them.
10.My friend agreed to let me use the bedroom on the first floor only on a short-term _____.
11.On his 10th birthday, the boy woke up to find his presents neatly _____ _____ on his little table.
12.The taxi drivers are _____ ______ . So we have to take the bus.
13.She _____ _____ in the middle of the speech and began to cry.
14."I hope I am not boring you with all this talk."
  "Oh no, not ____ _____ _____."
15.You are free to use everything in this room during my absence, But do remember to put them back _____ ______ after you are done with them.
16.We read newspapers to _____ ______ with what is happening in the world around us.
17.Seeing that the guests had no ______ of leaving. Mrs. Smith tactfully reminded them of the time.
18.Most people will put on weight if they eat too much chocolate. But that does not seem to be the ____ with me.
19.The shop girl told me that the color TV will be ____ to my door within two days after purchase.
20."The professor is working on his research. Will you please call again after 10 p.m.? He doesn't like being ______ while he is working."
21.Beijing University is the best university in China. It has a beautiful campus and a large student body. But what makes it great is the ______ of teaching.
22.Professor Smith and his wife are leaving for the U.S. tomorrow, but they have been so busy that they haven't started _____ yet.
23.On returning home, he was _____ to find that the front door had been forced open, evidently by a burglar(窃贼)
24.This reading room is not open to students. Only teachers have the ______ of using it.

WORD STUDY
1 Study the meaning of "suspect", "doubt", "wonder" and "suppose", Then use them correctly in the following sentences:
1.Tom is an honest person. I have never _____ it.
2.The clerk stole more than $ 100,000 from the bank, but no one ever _____ him.
3.I ______ who among us will be selected for the job. It is a big promotion!
4."Do you think Jim will come in such weather?"
  "I _______ so. He is always true to his words."
  "I _______ it. He may not be able to even if he wants to."
5.No one ______ anything wrong until the fire broke out.
6. I _______ whether this kind of talk will get us anywhere.
7. He is a mechanical(机械的) engineer, I ______ he can fix our car in to time(马上)
2 use "except" or "except for" in the following sentences:
1. There is little we can do _____ wait and see.
2. _____ the light of his cigarette, the room was completely dark.
3. He remained silent during the whole course of the conversation, ______ an occasional "yes" or "um."
4. She likes everyone in her class, _____ the boy who sits by her.
3 use "find" or "find out" in the following sentences:
1.Your job is not just to _____ where the problems are but also to come up with possible solutions.
2.I _____ the house completely dark when I returned from work last night.
3.I looked for my friend in the crowd but did not _____ him.
4.We will _____ whose fault it is sooner or later.
4 use "hear" or "hear of " in the following sentences:
1.I didn't ______ his departure(离开) until this morning.
2.No one has ever _____ him say anything about his parents.
3.In the early 1960's, few of my friends had _____ computers.
4.I was so nervous that I could _____ my heart beat.

COLZE
1They agreed ____(1) meet at the station at 6:30 ____(2) next morning to get on the 6:50 ____(3) to Suzhou. As it ____(4) out, one of them was held ______(5) by heavy traffic and he did not arrive at the station _____(6)7 o'clock. What's more ____(7) ,there was no other train to Suzhou that day. As a ____(8), the trip had to be canceled(取消), and they returned home _____(9) and unhappy.
2.I had met that guy on several _____(1) , but I didn't know who he was _____(2) last Christmas Eve, when he ____(3) to sit by me at Professor Edwards' dinner party. _____(4) him for the professor's son-in-law, I mentioned ____(5) him that I was sorry that I had ______(6) seen his wife. For some time, he looked surprised, ____(7) if he thought I was being funny. Then he said:" My wife? I haven't had the ___(8) of ever seeing her cither!"

STRUCTURE
1 Make a sentence with "more than" and the words given below:
  Example: way, with, dignity, think
          "Excuse me ," he said, with more dignity than I thought would be possible.
1.pay, money, expect.
2.want, clothes, afford,
3.have, dictionaries, need
4.produce, vegetables, sell
2 Make a sentence with "as if " and the words given below:
 Example: jump back, sting
          He jumped back as if he had been stung.
1.sound, my boss
2.talk about the subject, an expert
3.look, daydream
4.eat, hungry for days.

TRANSLATION
1Complete the following sentences by translating the given Chinese into English:
1.___________________(见我不打算买任何东西),the shop  girl gave all her attention to the other customers.
2.__________________(最令人宽慰的是),I know that I can always depend on you for help.
3._____________(他过去经常在晚上来我家) for a cup of coffee.
4.____________(这个家庭衰败了)。It used to be prosperous.
2 Translate the following into English:
1.除了她母亲偶尔打个电话来外,我现在很少听到她的消息了。
2.她刚收到的儿子来信大大减轻了她的忧虑。
3.我想与我的导师(supervisor) 谈谈我的计划,看我有没有可能三年内上完大学。
4.他二十五岁接替他父亲当了公司(corporation)的总裁(president)。 结果证明他比。他父亲更成功。
5.她极整洁,连一根乱发都没有。而且,她还期望全家人都像她一样整洁。
6.运用这种技术将引起水果生产的一场革命。


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