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大学英语精读第1册 第6课 课后阅读补充  

2009-01-22 10:37:25|  分类: 英语 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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READING ACTIVTTY
Reading Comprehension
By "reading comprehension", we mean how well one can read. It a student is "good at reading comprehension," then, he or she is able to read with a high degree of efficiency and obtain maximum information from a text with minimum misunderstanding(误解)。 We are going to suggest ways you can improve your reading comprehension.
Skill: Reading Comprehension Skill I
         --- reading for the Main Idea (Part I)
What is the most important element(成分) in any paragraph or passage? Without a doubt, it is the main idea or the central(中心的) idea, which gives the paragraph or passage a purpose and direction. Naturally, the first step to improve your comprehension is to practise reading a bit faster for the main idea.

Exercise    A
Read each of the following paragraphs s little faster than you usually do, and answer the multiple choice question that comes after it.
Paragraph 1
Behave        检点(自己的)行为;举止端正         limit    限度;范围
Tend          照管           范围                   alcohol      酒精
Bible        <<圣经>>                              forbid     禁止
barber        理发师

One hundred years ago, school teachers were expected to provide a variety of services in addition to their teaching duties and to behave themselves in an exemplary (serving as an example) manner. They cared for the oil lamps, tended the fire, and supplied their students with sharp pencils. After a long day in the classroom, they were expected to spend some time every evening reading the Bible. Women teachers could not marry, and barber shops were off limits(禁止进入的) to men teachers. Of course, alcohol and tobacco were forbidden.
Which statement best expresses the main idea?
  A. Teachers performed(做) domestic(家庭的)tasks.
  B. The teaching profession (职业) demanded total dedication.
  C. Teachers needed the guidance(引导)of religion (宗教。)
  D. Teachers set good examples by not using tobacco and alcohol.

Paragraph   2
Words to Know
Manufacture      制造             leather       皮革
Raw              来加工的;生的   harness      马具
Figure           数字             fur          毛皮
    Until the War of 1812, the United States had always bought its manufactured goods, especially its fine cloth. From England. During the war, however, the United States could neither sell its raw materials, nor buy manufactured goods. By the end of the War of 1812 there were nearly 150,000 men and women working in cotton and woolen mills in the United States. We have no figures on the number of workers employed in the various stages of iron production, but we know that the iron industry had greatly increased. Besides the cloth and iron works, there was a great leather industry, including shoe factories, saddle shops, and harness=making shops, while American hatters were able to supply the market with wool hats and fur caps.
The central idea of this paragraph is:
  A As a result of the War of 1812, Americans began to produce better cloth than they had previously obtained from abroad(海外)
  B The War of 1812 caused large numbers of Americans to move from the farms into the factories.
  C After the War of 1812 the United States was far less dependent(依赖)on Europe for its manufactured goods.
  D The War of 1812 caused a temporary(暂的) change in the pattern of trade between the United States and Europe.

Exercise  B
The following Dialogue(对话) and Epilogue(尾声) are closely related to the text Sam Adams, Industrial Engineer. Both can be divided(划分) into several parts according to their different controlling ideas, Read through the two pieces first to get an overall(总体的) impression and then determine the main idea in each part by answering the question that comes immediately after each part.
Words to Know
Exchange        交换                      suitable             合适的
Company        公司                       bill                 帐单
Indicate      表明;表示                  role                角色,作用
Introduction    介绍,引进                SOLUTION            解决(办法)
Painter         画家                      improvement         改进
Paint          画;描绘                   inevitable          必然的,不可避免的
Remind         提醒                       painful             痛苦的
Backwards      向后
Dialogue
Jane: Hi, Sam. How's everything?
Sam: Great to see you, Jane.
Jane: I hear you got a new job with Babson Machines.
Sam: Yean, it's true. I was really lucky. I started about six months ago; they haven't fired me yet. How's the factory?
Jane: Ah, about the same as always.
Sam: You mean shirts are still coming out without collars or buttons?
Jane: Sometimes it's just the collar and buttons without the shirt. The plant isn't famous for its efficiency, you know.
1.The main idea of this part is:
a. Sam and Jane meet and greetings are exchanged.
b. Sam was lucky to get a job in Babsan Machines Company.
c. The shirt factory is as inefficient as it used to be.
Sam: Well, I heard there are some changes at the factory. Something about music and a coffee break in the afternoons.
Jane: Music? Oh yeah. Yeah, I guess there is. A lot of good it does, though. The machines make so much noise we can't hear it anyway. And the coffee break! They give us only five minutes. (1)If we run at top speed we can just make it to the coffee machine and back to our worktable.
2 Which of the following sentences indicates the main idea?
  a. There appear to have been some changes at the factory anyway.
  b. Changes such as the introduction of background music and coffee breaks do not do the workers any good.
  c. The introduction of background music does the workers a lot of good while the coffee break does little.
Sam: I can't believe this. I understood that Mr. Hobbs was all ready to make a lot of big changes down there at the factory.
Jane: Well, a couple of things have changed. Wd used to have dull gray walls to look at between operations. A couple of weeks ago, some painter came in and painted a huge picture of perfect shirt ... with all its buttons. Sleeves, and the collar. (2)I guess management wanted to remind us of what we are supposed to be producing there. But can you imagine? A shirt! We see enough shirts all day. We don't need to look up from out work and find one painted on the walls.
Sam: You mean that big shirt doesn't make all of you want to produce more?
Jane: A lot of pictures might make us want to produce more, but huge painted shirt? No way! Oh yes, one other change, Remember Big Jim in our math class? He used to work on buttons and he held up half the assembly line. Well, they promoted him from buttons to sleeves, with a raise in pay. Now he sits at the beginning of the line and holds up everybody. There's progress for you.
Sam: Ah, yes, progress: one step forward and two steps backwards!
3. Which statement best expresses the main idea of this part?
  a. The management was ready to make big changes.
  b. If any, there have been changes not for the better but for the worse.
  c. all efforts to make changes have failed.
4. Choose a suitable title for the above passage:
  a. One Step Forward, Two Steps Backwards
  b. Much Ado About Nothing
  c. Music, Coffee, Painted Pictures - No Good!
Epilogue
    So, I learned that my consultation at the shirt factory had not improved production.
    Well, frankly, I'm not surprised. You see, while working at the Babson. Machine Company as an industrial adviser, I took a night class in management engineering at Northwestern University. My company paid the bill. I like that.
5. Complete the following sentence:
A night class in management engineering made me realize why.
________________________________________________________ .
Now I have quite a different idea of what it means to be a "consultant". (3)I used to think that the consultant goes into the factory, studies the problems, suggests cures for the problems, and then encourages the management to follow these suggestions.
6. Fill in the blank with suitable words:
    I used to think that the role of a _____ is to make _____ and encourage the management to ______ .
    I now believe that consultation doesn't work successfully that way. In my
Management engineering course I learned that first I have to listen. In the shirt factory I should have listened to the management, the two owners. But then, together, we should have listened to the workers themselves. What did they think the problems were? What were their suggestions for solutions?
7. Which of the following statements is NOT true?
    a. As a consultant, I should have listened to the management.
    b. It is just as important to ask the workers for their suggestions.
    c. It does not matter whether the management listen to the workers or not.
    I tried to force my suggestions on the owners. The suggestions for improvement weren't theirs or the workers'. (4)If workers and management are seriously involved in the problem solving, change is not only possible, but inevitable.
8. Complete the following sentence:
No consultant will succeed in his job unless he can ________.

    At any rate, although the experience was painful in many ways, it provided a good lesson for me.
    I'm thinking of sending the check for $ 100 back to Mr. Hobbs. As for the shirts, four of the five in the box didn't fit anyway, and the fifth one didn't have a right sleeve.
9. Complete the following statement:
    Anyway, my experience at the shirt factory taught me ________.
10. Which title suits this passage best?
    a. How to Succeed as Consultant
    b. The Management Engineering Course Is Important!
    c. A Good Lesson -Don't Force Suggestions on Others!
Exercise     C
Translate into Chinese the underlined sentences in the passage.

GUDED WRITING
Combination: subordinating conjunctions
Reread the following sentences from the text of this unit carefully, and study the functions of the subordinating conjunctions (从属连接词)(italicized):
--If you ask my mother how I happened to become an industrial engineer, she'll tell you that I have always been one.
--You'll see what I mean when I tell you about the first project I ever did after I finished my bachelor's degree at the university.
--After I made observations for a week, Mr. Hobbs asked me for an oral report of my findings.
Combine the following pairs of sentences, using proper subordinating conjunctions from the list below. Make changes where necessary.
After      before         since           until       as             while
Because      it           in case        although     as soon as     now that
Model: They entered the hall.
       The audience burst into thunderous applause(雷鸣般的掌声).
       When they entered the hall, the audience burst into thunderous applause.
1. It was over five years.
  We met again.
2. He grew old.
  He became more and more patient.
3. You've bought a new car.
  What are you going to do with the old one?
4. We used an out -of -date timetable.
  That's why we missed the train.
5. The work was done.
  He took a shower and went home.
6. I'll get an answer from him.
  I'll ring you up at once.
7. The boy has defeated many grown -ups at chess.
  He is only eleven.
8. They have seen each other quite a lot.
  They first met last May.
9. I stood there watching the plane.
  It flew out of sight.
10. We'd better take the telescope(望远镜) with us.
  Perhaps it is needed.
11. The strength of the collective(集体) is boundless (无限的).
   The strength of the individual (个人) is very limited.
12. Supposing that Columbus had not discovered America.
  Somebody else would have discovered it.

SUPPLEMENTARY READING IN POPULAR SCIENCE

The World of the Atom: now you see it, now you don't
When you start looking into the world of the atom, you'll find it is not at all like the world we are used to. Things in the atomic world act in strange ways that can not be explained in terms of everyday life. It i0s a world of mathematics and, paradoxically(似非而是地), of uncertainty.

Words to Know
Atom            原子                  consequence         后果
Particle       粒子                   calculator          计算器
Bounce        (使)弹起,(使)反弹    precise            精确的
Transistor      晶体管                 precision
Source          来源                   per                每
Assume         假定                    location           位置
Assumption                             velocity           速度,速率
Process        过程
    Physics has gone from studying the familiar things in our everyday lives like baseballs to strange things like atoms and the particles from which they are made: things we do not (indeed, cannot) ever know directly. The first great difference between the familiar world and the world of the atom is that we do not "see" things in the same way in the two worlds. This difference leads to results that are hard to understand. Let me give you an example of what I mean. When you run into a wall, you expect to bounce off. If you were an electron, however, there is some chance that you would simply appear on the other side of the wall without leaving a hole behind you. In fact, if electrons didn't behave this way, your transistor radio wouldn't work.
    You probably never thought about it, but when you look at something (this book, for example), you are seeing light that has come from some source, bounced off the object and then come to your eye. The reason we usually don't think about seeing in this way is that in our everyday world we can safely assume that bouncing light off a book doesn't change the book in any way that matters. The light from a lamp does not push the book away.
When we get to the atomic world, however, this comfortable assumption no longer words. If you want to see an electron, you have to bounce another electron off it. In the process, the electron is bound to be changed.
The inability to observe things in the atomic world without at the same time changing them has some surprising consequences. Suppose I asked you to tell me where a particular car will be tomorrow. Ordinarily, you would look to see where the car is, look again to see which way it is going and look again to see how fast it is going. After a moment with your calculator. You would come back with a definite answer. If the car is like an electron, however, you can't look at it more than once - the first look changes everything. You cannot know with precision both where it is and how fast it is going. You might be able to say that the car is somewhere in the Chicago area and heading in a generally eastward direction at roughly 40 to 60 miles per hour. You can't be more precise than that without more measurements, and more measurements would only change the car's location and velocity, and therefore increase your uncertainty.

Answer the following questions:
1 In what way is the world of the atom different from our everyday world?
2 What might happen if an electron ran into a wall?
3 What can we assume when we see such familiar things as baseballs?
4 What might happen if we try to observe things in the atomic world?
5 What does the author want to tell us by giving the example of the car?
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